Sustainable Development for the Western Cape
Section One: Introduction
Section Two: The role of the ANC nationally
Section Three: Economic importance of resource based industries
Section Four: Environmental Justice
Section Five: Environmental governance and management
Section Six: Conservation of Biodiversity
Section Seven: The ANC in government in the Western Cape
There is broad agreement that meeting basic human needs is vital to economic development and social justice in the next century. These needs have been identified as: food, shelter, energy and water, as well as health, education and meaningful work.
However, the fulfilment of these human needs relies on the effective functioning of the natural environment:
- as a source of raw materials (e.g. timber, clean water, minerals, fertile soil);
- as a ?sink? for absorbing and recycling our waste products (e.g. land, water and air pollution); and
- as a complex system for supporting life.
As a result of the processes of urbanisation and industrialisation over the past century, modern society is having significant negative impacts on the environment and limiting the earth?s ability to perform its life-supporting functions properly.
- To link environmental issues to social transformation.
- To meet basic human needs and enhance our quality of life so as to close the gap between green and brown issues.
- To balance the need for social equity and economic prosperity while nurturing respect for natural resources.
In the light of the increasing importance of environmental issues to South African and global society, the ANC stands behind the overarching principle of sustainable development.
- Sustainable development - human development which meets current needs without compromising the life-supporting capacity of the world?s ecosystem?s or the developmental needs of future generations.
- Environmental Justice
The ANC recognises that many of the country?s most challenging environmental issues are directly linked to widespread poverty, lack of basic services, unjust treatment of marginalised communities, and inequitable allocation of environmental costs in society.
- Environmental Governance
The ANC recognises that those making and implementing decisions relating to the environment must be accountable to the public for their actions through explicit, justifiable processes.
- Biodiversity Conservation
The ANC recognises that a prosperous, environmentally conscious nation depends on people who are in hamonious coexistence with the natural environment, and which derive lasting benefit from the conservation and sustainable use of its rich biological diversity.
2. THE role of the ANC Nationally
The ANC has a long tradition of participative decision-making. From 1991 to 1995, Canada?s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in partnership with the ANC, COSATU and SANCO, assisted South Africa in developing an environmental policy. Workshops were held all over the country and the results have been used by the ANC Government nationally in drawing up its policies on sustainable development.
Before the advent of the current democratic dispensation in South Africa, nature conservation was an instrument of oppression. It was primarily used as a means to maintain control of Africa?s natural resources, firstly against the indigenous African communities and secondly among the forces of oppression as they sought ways to keep natural resources, including minerals for the benefit of a few.
From 1994, South Africa has pursued a path of sustainable development focusing on meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Acknowledging that it is the poor that bear the burden of bad environmental practice and that this was due to the policies of the previous government, the ANC-led government focused on transforming the management of both our natural and built environment including industrial processes.
From 1994, the South African Government?s commitment to sustainable development has enabled us in four short years to turn full circle from a position where the environment meant only the plants and animals to a position where in the words of the new National Environmental Management Act: ?Environmental management must place people and their needs at the forefront of its concern and serve their physical, psychological, developmental, cultural and social interests equitably.?
This integrated approach has resulted in:
- A constitution where everyone has a fundamental human right -
- to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being and
- to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures.
- The new National Environmental Management Policy which for the first time co-ordinates environmental management in one department, gives the Department of Environment and Tourism the role of lead agent.
- Over 42 000 previously unemployed people now involved in the ?working for water? campaign; over half of them women.
- National Marine Living Resources Act which has as a guiding principle - the need to restructure the fishing industry to address historical imbalances.
- Regulations which ensure that defined activities are required to undergo an environmental impact assessment were promulgated in September 1997.
- White Paper on Mineral and Mining Policy committing the government to a ?cradle to grave? approach to mining; from the environmental impact of exploration, the life of a mine, financial assurances for mine rehabilitation and maintenance of rehabilitated mines.
- The White Paper on Energy Policy which seeks to promote the research and development of alternative and renewable energy sources.
- Commission of enquiry into Thor
Thor Chemicals which had imported mercury waste with impunity under the previous government, was finally brought to account by a commission of enquiry.
- The Integrated Pollution control and Waste Management Policy, a joint initiative between Water Affairs and Environment Affairs addresses pollution issues, including those which were the result of the previous government?s policies; for example - 50% of South Africans, especially those in the townships, informal settlements and rural areas do not have access to waste services.
- The Coastal Management Policy which puts forward an integrated development plan for our coastal areas.
This has been achieved by an ANC government.
3. Economic Importance Resource Based Industries
The ANC?s approach is an environmental systemic approach which leads to economic sustainability, and meaningful work; for example in the Western Cape, the DWAF working for water programme has the following economic benefits:
- removal of alien vegetation, recovery of unique fynbos, scenic tourism boosted
- less water absorbed by aliens, more water for agriculture
- improved biodiversity
- increased the supply of potentially potable water
Sympathy to the environment automatically ensures development of the whole community. Part of the production process must include evaluation and monitoring by a suite of environmental tools. (see 7. 1).
Past failure to use a sustainable development approach has lead to a concentration of control and proceeds of resource utilisation being concentrated in a few powerful individuals at the expense of the broader community. All people should enter the economy as more than just workers and consumers, helping towards the deracialisation of our economy.
Because in the past the environmental approach was not sustainable, the following impacts are visible:
- Agriculture and food processing (particularly vineyards, fruit industry)
- Energy, esp. nuclear:
- Mining, esp. quarrying and marine:
- Marine Living resources:
- Industry, esp. oil, chemicals and textiles and heavy industry (steel production):
impacts may include: loss of Biodiversity, soil compaction, water pollution from artificial chemical fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides and disposal of organically loaded effluent.
impacts may include: health and safety, potentially lethal exposure to radiation, unresolved hazardous waste disposal issues.
impacts may include: land and sea surface disturbance, loss of biodiversity, depletion of non-renewable resources, soil compaction, salting of water courses, negative aesthetics (the ?eye-sore? effect), dust.
impacts may include: loss of biodiversity through overfishing, marine pollution through water borne sewage outflows, depletion of resources by inappropriate coastal development, scenic impacts.
impacts may include: depletion of non-renewable resources, impact on biodiversity, visual impacts, air pollution including greenhouse gas emissions, soil contamination and water pollution from spillage or disposal of chemical waste.
- Building and Construction Industry:
impacts may include: valuable agricultural land disappearing under unrestrained inappropriate development.
- Retail and financial:
impacts may include: sale of environmentally unsustainable products, generation of packaging waste, fuel use in customer and product related transportation, lending financial support for environmentally negative projects or institutions.
- Tourism and leisure:
impacts may include: construction of tourist facilities and services in environmentally sensitive areas, increased infrastructure, transportation and waste to support tourists, loss of vineyards through inappropriate development, impacting on ambience.
The ANC is proud of its grassroots approach to development in South Africa, and environmental issues are no exception. Many ANC members are active in community-based organisations which are fighting for the enforcement of people?s Constitutionally enshrined environmental rights.
The most pressing of environmental justice issues are over consumption and mismanagement of resources.
Water is essential for all living beings on earth. In the past, major consumers of water were given almost unlimited, cheap, subsidised access to potable water with disastrous effects on the environment.
- South Africa is a dry country, with a mean average rainfall less than 600 mm per year. Conservation and effective management of water are absolutely essential.
- There are an estimated 21 million people without basic water services.
- Large dams were sited for political purpose disregarding environmental assessment.
- Water borne sewerage - a coastal problem.
Many areas suffer from water pollution, sometimes posing a health risk to neighbouring communities, as a result of inadequate controls on industrial effluent, ineffective municipal water treatment facilities and inadequate domestic sanitation services.
- In Khayelitsha, there are no public toilets and many people are forced to relieve themselves in public places, risking personal safety and adding to the pollution of the surroundings with subsequent health risks.
- In Philippi, there are very few taps supplying clean drinking water. During the rainy season, most of the residents experience flooding of their houses and live on the edge of stagnant water ponds which again pose a serious health risk.
- Khayelitsha is an example of an area cleared in the apartheid era without respect for the prevailing environmental conditions, such as the Kuils river. The river is now surfacing in the form of wetlands, which are reportedly polluted by industrial processes further upstream and inappropriate residential use, thereby creating unsanitary conditions for the community.
- The national Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), under an ANC Minister, has initiated a series of policy reforms, culminating in the Water Act and Water Services Act, as well as an inter-Departmental Sanitation policy to speed the delivery of basic water services to the whole population.
- DWAF have initiated reform to ensure environmental assessment of dams.
- Land based sewerage systems part of new policy.
- DWAF in the Western Cape has studied various options for conserving and providing sufficient water to the Province in the future. A water saving campaign, and a number of water supply schemes, on which the public has been consulted, have been prioritised.
- DWAF also launched the Working for Water Programme in 1996 to clear thirsty invading alien plants, which are estimated to absorb 7% of South Africa?s mean annual run-off. This has resulted 240 projects clearing 220 000 hectares of alien vegetation throughout the country, while employing 42 000 workers targeted for poverty relief. 52 of these projects were located in the most critical areas of the Western Cape.
- A resource economics study by Dr Christo Marais, Western Cape Working for Water projects? leader, indicates that, in many areas, the financial benefits of making productive use of just half the enhanced run-off of water, as well as the savings from being able to postpone expensive capital infrastructure (e.g. new dams), could alone pay off the clearing bill of R600m per year.
- While the ANC held the environment portfolio in the Western Cape, RDP projects focused on cleaning up local communities and provided job creation at the local level as in Khayelitsha.
4.2 Waste generation and management of waste and pollution
Increased demand for goods had led to the increased generation of waste. An integrated approach is needed which addresses both industrial and domestic players and must address the consumerist issues, including planned obsolescence, industrial capitalisation- as the fundamental issue is that exponential overproduction (due to factors such as advertising) contributes to the increased generation of waste.
- Increased generation of waste coupled with inappropriate strategies to address this, such as incinerators which produce dangerous heavy metals and dioxins.
- Absence of waste separation at source or equivalent strategies to reduce landfill volumes.
- Polluting industries and waste dumps are most often located in areas in the Province where poor people live, with a lack of controls and protection in place. These result in serious threats to the resident population?s health and well-being.
- Inadequate utilities like electricity and services like toilets, potable water and waste disposal often result in severely polluted and unhygienic conditions within the Province?s already over-crowded informal settlements.
- Overall, the most affluent sector of the population produces about 2kg of domestic waste per person while the landfill sites are sited next to the poor communities who only produce 0.5kg of domestic waste per person.
- In Tafelsig, Mitchell?s Plain, illegally dumped medical waste resulted in over 200 children having to be tested for infectious diseases, including AIDS, after they had been found playing with the discarded syringes.
- In Khayelitsha, there is no properly co-ordinated refuse removal service and many of the open spaces have been used as illegal dump sites, including for toxic waste. Even the legal municipal waste disposal site, Swartklip, is poorly managed and associated with polluted surrounding ground water and unsanitary conditions.
- In Philippi, it is reported that trucks from supermarkets dump rotten fruit, vegetables and other decaying food stuffs, while building companies tip rubble and scrap. This dumping is illegal, unsightly and poses various health risks to the community.
- The ANC has spearheaded a national policy initiative on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa, currently at White Paper stage and expected to be enacted into law in the next parliamentary sitting. This sets out the country?s first comprehensive policy on pollution prevention, waste minimisation, impact control and remediation.
- The ANC has encouraged the support of various independent public and grassroots initiatives in the Western Cape on issues of pollution and waste, including NGOs projects for example a waste minimisation campaign , educational projects on litter, a community waste management programme in Langa, and submissions to the poverty, inequality and environment hearings.
- ANC MP?s have assisted various local communities in the Province to obtain basic services, to direct municipal effort towards cleaning up areas.
- Before 1994, waste management services in poor areas were not given priority. When the ANC took over the environment portfolio in the province, RDP related greening projects were initiated and clean up campaigns were run in the townships, as part of a larger goal of providing green space and addressing waste management issue.
- The ANC in Khayelitsha worked with local structures and communities to stop illegal dumping of toxic waste by industry.
The ANC believes that the foundation of a sustainable society lies in the strength of its environmental governance and management systems. All institutions, including their activities and projects, should include structures for transparent govenance and procedures for responsible management of environmental impacts.
The main issues are around involvement of interested and effective parties in environmental decision making and environmentally sustainable urban and industrial planning.
Within the provincial NP govermnent the focus in still concentrated on nature conservation issues and environmental justice issues receive a low priority, demonstrated by the capacity of nature conservation, with approx. 500 people, and the capacity of the environmental function (including pollution and waste control) with only 15-20 people.
Under the National Party-led government, there have been 5 MEC?s for the environment since 1994. This shows a further lack of commitment to the environmental portfolio.
5.1 Stakeholder participation
- Many activities and decisions with significant associated environmental impacts have in the past proceeded without adequate participation by interested and affected parties. Participation should include provision of information, consultation with representative bodies and communities, and due consideration of inputs and proposed alternatives.
- Many of the institutions making decisions affecting the communities and the environment are not representative of the broader South African society or their interests.
- The Liesbeeck-Black River Confluence has been subjected to piecemeal and ad hoc development. Developments such as The Courtyard were widely opposed by grassroots environmental and community organisations and attempts at consultation by local government were judged completely inadequate.
- The ANC participated in provincial workshops which contributed to the development of the National Environmental Management Policy (the CONNEP process), which provides for DEAT (the National Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism) to co-ordinate all environment responsibilities - to act as lead agent.
- The ANC has been successful in supporting and campaigning for greater stakeholder participation in decision-making around environmental issues: members of the ANC Environmental desk have effectively participated in the Peninsula Mountain Forum, the Garden Route Trust and the Valkenburg Confluence Alliance.
- The ANC Environment Desk has fostered grassroots community representation on various environmental networks and forums. It has also included representatives from numerous of these bodies in its own activities and governance structure.
- The ANC supported its members involved in the fishing industry through the formation of the ANC fishing desk which then contributed to marine fisheries policy and new act to ensure equity and that past injustices would be redressed.
- When the ANC was part of the government of provincial unity in the Western Cape the ANC MEC for environment called a consultative conference to chart a way forward for the environment department in the province. This included all stakeholders as part of participatory democracy.
5.2 Urban and industrial planning
Sustainable Development is dependent on full participation in decision-making leading to negotiated agreement in all areas of urban and industrial planning.
- Under the National Party provincial government, in many areas of the Province, urban and industrial development is occurring at the expense of the environment including the people. This inappropriate planning failed to serve the broader community leading to an inability to contain urban sprawl, loss of open green space, development of ecologically or scenically sensitive areas, negative impacts from traffic and transport and environmental issues linked to overcrowding and an under-provision of utilities and services.
- Many industries and government authorities are inadequately managing their polluting impacts on the environment and on surrounding communities, with a resulting loss in environmental quality and unnecessary increase in health-related complaints. Insufficient and inadequate EIAs (environmental impact assessments) are being conducted on new developments in the Western Cape, the standard of environmental monitoring enforcement is poor, and few institutions have implemented formal environmental management systems.
- The proposed development of the ecologically, culturally and scenically sensitive areas such as Oudekraal on the slopes of Table Mountain.
- Large informal settlements such as Marconi Beam, Masiphumelele and parts of Crossroads, without houses, water, sanitation or electricity
- The disastrous toxic blue algae growth which occurred in the Noordhoek vlei due to industrial and municipal pollution and which required a massive intervention of salt-dosing to remediate.
- The polluting impacts of Caltex refinery and the Kynoch plant on the communities surrounding Milnerton and the failed- ?good neighbourly agreement? in which Caltex set specific targets for reducing its emissions.
- Continuing environmental and safety concerns regarding the operation of the Koeberg Nuclear Power station near Melkbosstrand, as well as proposed new ?mini-nukes? along the West Coast. Critical issues include: continued exposure of nuclear workers, nuclear fallout to local communities and dairy farms, the potential of radioactive contamination from a possible accident, hazardous waste treatment and disposal and the eventual decommissioning of the radioactive plant.
- The ANC has been active in supporting calls for improved management of the environmental impacts of industrial and urban development, including more stringent and effective execution of the EIA regulations in the Province and the recommendations of the Sustainable Cities Programme.
- The ANC was instrumental in the formation of the Provincial Developmental Council, a multi-stakeholder body including environmental representation by the ANC Environment Desk and others, tasked with deriving a consensus development strategy for the Western Cape.
- The ANC and its grassroots environmental alliances have been instrumental in the fostering of a partnership approach between government and civil society in development-related processes, at the national level with the Development Facilitation Act, and at a provincial level, with the Planning and Development Bill, and at a local level with the formation of the participatory development process for Valkenburg area.
The ANC recognises that the basis of a prosperous environmentally conscious sustainable economic development includes the maintenance of ecological systems and processes (including protected areas such as nature reserves), and the socially equitable use of our natural resources.
6.1 Equitable conservation areas
- Loss of natural areas of ecological diversity and related species extinction has become a serious global problem. These ecosystems may contain, for example, essential life-supporting functions, valuable natural resources or potential medicinal remedies, which are lost forever if not conserved.
- Prior to 1994, conservation was based on an exclusive approach which deprived indigenous communities of access to the ?reserved? land or use of its resources. This needs to change in favour of a more inclusive, sustainable use approach.
- The Cape?s fynbos vegetation is a unique and extremely diverse floral kingdom in global terms (an international hotspot), but continues to be lost to development. For example, at present, it?s estimated that less than 2% of the unique renosterveld shrubland remains in the Province. Situations like this have been among the justification for establishing the Cape Peninsula National Park.
- Indigenous people were forcibly removed in the past from their land to make way for many national parks, such as the Kalahari Gemsbok Park.
- In the past, various sections of the Cape coastline have been declared Marine Reserves, excluding subsistence fishing communities who struggle to retain access to their source of livelihood.
- The ANC and its grassroots alliances have been active in engaging with Cape Nature Conservation and the South African National Parks authorities to ensure an inclusive approach is adopted to biodiversity conservation in the Province.
- The ANC Environment Desk has ensured representation on the forums and coalitions, and supports an inclusive, equitable, sustainable use approach to the recently declared Cape Peninsula Mountain Park.
- The ANC has remained supportive of small, subsistence fishing communities and their right to practice their livelihoods in a sustainable way.
- Despite having promoted the establishment of a statutory board to take on all the nature conservation functions within the province, the NP provincial government also proposed the Private Nature Reserves Bill which focuses on nature conservation issues. While the ANC-led government has focused on an integrated approach to environment at the national level, the National Party in the Western Cape has maintained a conservation ethos which is exclusive. This manifests itself in the private nature reserves bill, which will fragment nature conservation further.
- Brenton Butterfly: The ANC in the provincial legislature took the issue of the Brenton Blue butterfly in the Knysna area to the national level as the provincial NP government appeared only interested in short term economic gains for a few people and are not interested in long term sustainability.
6.2 Sustainable eco-tourism
South Africa?s and in particular, the Western Cape Province?s natural scenic diversity and beauty are increasingly attracting tourists who are drawn to the pristine environment of the Cape. However, the benefits of this tourism have been inequitably distributed, due to the industry being dominated by big-business tourism operators and facilities, with limited involvement by small business and local community members.
Little attention has been paid to maintaining ecological integrity which is the basis for eco-tourism, or to managing the environmental impacts associated with increased tourism itself.
- Benefits of the Cape tourist trade are concentrated among hotel chains, while several large tour operators dominate the delivery of tourist packages.
- The Study on Air Pollution, (the Brown Haze Study) conducted by UCT shows the extent of Cape Town?s air pollution smog problem, one potential environmental disincentive to visiting tourists.
- No comprehensive environmental carrying capacity study for tourism has been carried out for the Province or its metropolitan areas.
- The ANC, through its national leadership of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, has introduced policy reforms which begin to tackle the issue of equity and distribution of tourism benefits.
- The ANC Environment Desk while supportive of the socio-economic benefits of increased tourism, has remained constructively critical of the negative impacts of this activity, for example ribbon coastal developments which cut off communities from access to recreational and subsistence activities along the coast.
After the 1999 elections, the ANC will seek to implement the gains of the national ANC govenment and to consolidate an integrated approach. This will include strategies to deal with past environmental injustices and will ensure that the Western Cape is set on a path of sustainable development:
The ANC would use the catchment area as the basic unit for planning, development and harvesting water resources. Programmes would focus on water demand management and ensuring that water is not wasted through leaking pipes that everyone has access to clean water in their homes and schools. Illegal dumping and irresponsible industrial activity which pollutes the aquifer would be stopped. A long term objective would be that Canalisation of rivers would be reversed and the flood plains used for recreational purposes where appropriate.
An accelerated research program on renewable energy would be undertaken, particularly solar and wind energy, pilot programmes would be increased in suitable areas, focusing on local cost-effective technology which increases sustainable jobs. The future use of Nuclear power will be reviewed. Other cost-effective, ecologically less damaging alternatives will be examined.
Clean technology programmes would be implemented as a matter of urgency to minimise air pollution, in order to improve the quality of health of our urban populations especially children and old people. Those industries which have caused the problems will be targeted to assist in cleaning up. (Polluter pays principle)
All life forms and ecological systems have intrinsic value and the integrity of our fynbos systems must be conserved. Benefits arising from the use and development of the Western Cape?s biological resources will be fairly and equitably shared. The rights to use biological resources will be equitably allocated and will recognise the need to achieve conservation and sustainable use.
7.5 Urban agriculture and open space:
The concept of productive open space (e.g. food gardens, small stock grazing, horticulture, agro-forestry) and passive open space will be interlinked in an integrated approach to green spaces in urban areas. The province will commit itself to the green corridors from mountain to sea. Those open spaces in the townships designated parks will be rehabilitated for communities to benefit from.
7.6 Coastal Zone:
Development in the coastal zone should be both equitable and sustainable. It must be compatible with the sharing of benefits among the largest number of people possible as well as with safeguarding and conserving the diversity of available sites and resources. The current trend towards upmarket exclusive affluent estates should be reviewed.
The implementation of the transformation process has met with serious obstacles detrimental to the health and welfare of the fishing communities. However, the ANC will ensure that distribution of access rights to fisheries will be equitable and would ensure that the needs of artisanal fishers are balanced with the needs of an export industry. The fishing traditions of the Western Cape should be acknowledged. Fishing Tourism will be promoted to increase jobs available in the fishing sector while protecting the fish stocks.
Transport is an environmental issue as it has implications for pollution, congestion and urban planning. A provincial public transport system that services the urban areas as well as the rural areas needs to be established. The use of public transport systems above private cars will be encouraged by legislation and economic incentives. Bus and taxi lanes will be introduced widely and research into electric-taxis will be initiated in consultation with the taxi industry.
7.9 Integrated waste management:
An integrated waste minimisation and management strategy will be implemented. Waste management including waste separation at source, and recycling systems which focus on local economic empowerment will be implemented. Dumping of waste will be highly regulated to ensure a cradle to grave approach. Generators of waste will bear the environmental, social and economic costs to society of resulting pollution, and the responsibility for any consequences. The cross boundary movement of toxic waste, including nuclear waste will be banned. The government will implement a policy of using recycled materials in all its departments wherever possible thereby contributing to the recycling and reduction waste.
Marine sewage outfall pipes will be phased out in favour of land-based sewerage systems.
7.10 Development Planning
Decisions about resources will be guided by economic approaches. These will consider the full environmental costs and benefits of projects, plans and policies which impact on the environment, and will internalise costs borne by society. These will reflect both the economic loss that results when biodiversity is degraded or lost, as well as the value gained from conserving the resource. Where there are threats of serious damage to the environment, a lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent degradation or loss i.e. the societal costs will be included in the cost of projects. (Precautionary principle)
7.11 Institutional framework:
Currently, there is an absence of an accountable, transparent institutional framework in the Western Cape Province under the NP government. The ANC commits itself to an accountable, transparent framework including:
- an environment department which will take on a strong lead agent role as at the national level.
- strong research and development capacity and should also monitor and audit other government agencies in the province to ensure compliance with environmental norms and standards. Environmental reporting should be required for all companies in the Western Cape.
- the ANC will promote the development and application of appropriate environmental economics measures (e.g. resource accounts), instruments (e.g. pollution taxes) and methodologies (e.g. environmental valuation), to support the implementation of sustainable development in the Province.
- an appeal process whereby the decision can be reviewed. This review is not limited to administrative review but must also include substantive issues.
- consultative fora at regional levels of government to advise government. These consultative fora should consist of representatives of civil society including NGOs, CBOs, labour, business. Specifically: Fishing fora at local level to provide a communication channel between fishing communities and the Sea Fisheries Directorate.
- Capacity Building: At the provincial level, the number of personnel in the environmental department will be increased, and financial resources should be allocated to environmental functions as a priority to redress previous environmental injustices.
- access to information to enable people to:
- protect their health and well-being both at home and at work,
- to protect the environment,
- to participate in environmental governance,
- to comply with environmental policy, legislation and regulation.
- provincial government environmental awareness programmes based on an appreciation of indigenous and local environmental knowledge, which should enhance civil society?s capability to monitor and care for their local environment.
- Environmental education will also be integrated into the formal education system.