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Sustainable Development for the Western Cape



Contents

Section One: Introduction

Section Two: The role of the ANC nationally

Section Three: Economic
importance of resource based industries

Section Four: Environmental Justice

Section Five: Environmental
governance and management

Section Six: Conservation of Biodiversity

Section Seven: The ANC in
government in the Western Cape



1. Introduction

There is broad agreement that meeting basic human needs is vital to economic
development and social justice in the next century. These needs have been
identified as: food, shelter, energy and water, as well as health, education and
meaningful work.

However, the fulfilment of these human needs relies on the effective
functioning of the natural environment:

  1. as a source of raw materials (e.g. timber, clean water, minerals, fertile
    soil);
  2. as a ?sink? for absorbing and recycling our waste products (e.g. land,
    water and air pollution); and
  3. as a complex system for supporting life.

As a result of the processes of urbanisation and industrialisation over the
past century, modern society is having significant negative impacts on the
environment and limiting the earth?s ability to perform its life-supporting
functions properly.

Vision:

  • To link environmental issues to social transformation.
  • To meet basic human needs and enhance our quality of life so as to close
    the gap between green and brown issues.
  • To balance the need for social equity and economic prosperity while
    nurturing respect for natural resources.

Principles:

In the light of the increasing importance of environmental issues to South
African and global society, the ANC stands behind the overarching principle of
sustainable development.

  • Sustainable development - human development which meets current
    needs without compromising the life-supporting capacity of the world?s
    ecosystem?s or the developmental needs of future generations.

There are three principles underpinning this:

  • Environmental Justice

The ANC recognises that many of the country?s most challenging environmental
issues are directly linked to widespread poverty, lack of basic services, unjust
treatment of marginalised communities, and inequitable allocation of
environmental costs in society.

  • Environmental Governance

The ANC recognises that those making and implementing decisions relating to
the environment must be accountable to the public for their actions through
explicit, justifiable processes.

  • Biodiversity Conservation

The ANC recognises that a prosperous, environmentally conscious nation
depends on people who are in hamonious coexistence with the natural environment,
and which derive lasting benefit from the conservation and sustainable use of
its rich biological diversity.

2. THE role of the ANC Nationally

The ANC has a long tradition of participative decision-making. From 1991 to
1995, Canada?s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in partnership
with the ANC, COSATU and SANCO, assisted South Africa in developing an
environmental policy. Workshops were held all over the country and the results
have been used by the ANC Government nationally in drawing up its policies on
sustainable development.

Before the advent of the current democratic dispensation in South Africa,
nature conservation was an instrument of oppression. It was primarily used as a
means to maintain control of Africa?s natural resources, firstly against the
indigenous African communities and secondly among the forces of oppression as
they sought ways to keep natural resources, including minerals for the benefit
of a few.

From 1994, South Africa has pursued a path of sustainable development
focusing on meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their needs. Acknowledging that it is the
poor that bear the burden of bad environmental practice and that this was due to
the policies of the previous government, the ANC-led government focused on
transforming the management of both our natural and built environment including
industrial processes.

From 1994, the South African Government?s commitment to sustainable
development has enabled us in four short years to turn full circle from a
position where the environment meant only the plants and animals to a position
where in the words of the new National Environmental Management Act:
?Environmental management must place people and their needs at the forefront of
its concern and serve their physical, psychological, developmental, cultural and
social interests equitably.?

This integrated approach has resulted in:

  • A constitution where everyone has a fundamental human right -
  1. to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being and
  2. to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future
    generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures.
  • The new National Environmental Management Policy which for the first time
    co-ordinates environmental management in one department, gives the
    Department of Environment and Tourism the role of lead agent.
  • Over 42 000 previously unemployed people now involved in the ?working for
    water? campaign; over half of them women.
  • National Marine Living Resources Act which has as a guiding principle -
    the need to restructure the fishing industry to address historical
    imbalances.
  • Regulations which ensure that defined activities are required to undergo
    an environmental impact assessment were promulgated in September 1997.
  • White Paper on Mineral and Mining Policy committing the government to a
    ?cradle to grave? approach to mining; from the environmental impact of
    exploration, the life of a mine, financial assurances for mine
    rehabilitation and maintenance of rehabilitated mines.
  • The White Paper on Energy Policy which seeks to promote the research and
    development of alternative and renewable energy sources.
  • Commission of enquiry into Thor

Thor Chemicals which had imported mercury waste with impunity under the
previous government, was finally brought to account by a commission of
enquiry.

  • The Integrated Pollution control and Waste Management Policy, a joint
    initiative between Water Affairs and Environment Affairs addresses pollution
    issues, including those which were the result of the previous government?s
    policies; for example - 50% of South Africans, especially those in the
    townships, informal settlements and rural areas do not have access to waste
    services.
  • The Coastal Management Policy which puts forward an integrated development
    plan for our coastal areas.

This has been achieved by an ANC government.

3. Economic Importance
Resource Based Industries

The ANC?s approach is an environmental systemic approach which leads to
economic sustainability, and meaningful work; for example in the Western Cape,
the DWAF working for water programme has the following economic benefits:

  • removal of alien vegetation, recovery of unique fynbos, scenic tourism
    boosted
  • less water absorbed by aliens, more water for agriculture
  • improved biodiversity
  • increased the supply of potentially potable water

Sympathy to the environment automatically ensures development of the whole
community. Part of the production process must include evaluation and monitoring
by a suite of environmental tools. (see 7. 1).

Past failure to use a sustainable development approach has lead to a
concentration of control and proceeds of resource utilisation being concentrated
in a few powerful individuals at the expense of the broader community. All
people should enter the economy as more than just workers and consumers, helping
towards the deracialisation of our economy.

Because in the past the environmental approach was not sustainable, the
following impacts are visible:

  • Agriculture and food processing (particularly vineyards, fruit
    industry)


  • impacts may include: loss of Biodiversity, soil compaction, water pollution
    from artificial chemical fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides and disposal
    of organically loaded effluent.

     

  • Energy, esp. nuclear:


  • impacts may include: health and safety, potentially lethal exposure to
    radiation, unresolved hazardous waste disposal issues.

     

  • Mining, esp. quarrying and marine:


  • impacts may include: land and sea surface disturbance, loss of biodiversity,
    depletion of non-renewable resources, soil compaction, salting of water
    courses, negative aesthetics (the ?eye-sore? effect), dust.

     

  • Marine Living resources:


  • impacts may include: loss of biodiversity through overfishing, marine
    pollution through water borne sewage outflows, depletion of resources by
    inappropriate coastal development, scenic impacts.

     

  • Industry, esp. oil, chemicals and textiles and heavy industry (steel
    production):


  • impacts may include: depletion of non-renewable resources, impact on
    biodiversity, visual impacts, air pollution including greenhouse gas
    emissions, soil contamination and water pollution from spillage or disposal of
    chemical waste.

  • Building and Construction Industry:


  • impacts may include: valuable agricultural land disappearing under
    unrestrained inappropriate development.

  • Retail and financial:

    impacts may include: sale of environmentally unsustainable products,
    generation of packaging waste, fuel use in customer and product related
    transportation, lending financial support for environmentally negative
    projects or institutions.
  • Tourism and leisure:

    impacts may include: construction of tourist facilities and services in
    environmentally sensitive areas, increased infrastructure, transportation
    and waste to support tourists, loss of vineyards through inappropriate
    development, impacting on ambience.

4. Environmental Justice

The ANC is proud of its grassroots approach to development in South Africa,
and environmental issues are no exception. Many ANC members are active in
community-based organisations which are fighting for the enforcement of people?s
Constitutionally enshrined environmental rights.

The most pressing of environmental justice issues are over consumption and
mismanagement of resources.

4.1 Water

Water is essential for all living beings on earth. In the past, major
consumers of water were given almost unlimited, cheap, subsidised access to
potable water with disastrous effects on the environment.

The issues:

  • South Africa is a dry country, with a mean average rainfall less than 600
    mm per year. Conservation and effective management of water are absolutely
    essential.
  • There are an estimated 21 million people without basic water services.
  • Large dams were sited for political purpose disregarding environmental
    assessment.
  • Water borne sewerage - a coastal problem.

Many areas suffer from water pollution, sometimes posing a health risk to
neighbouring communities, as a result of inadequate controls on industrial
effluent, ineffective municipal water treatment facilities and inadequate
domestic sanitation services.

Examples:

  • In Khayelitsha, there are no public toilets and many people are forced to
    relieve themselves in public places, risking personal safety and adding to
    the pollution of the surroundings with subsequent health risks.
  • In Philippi, there are very few taps supplying clean drinking water.
    During the rainy season, most of the residents experience flooding of their
    houses and live on the edge of stagnant water ponds which again pose a
    serious health risk.
  • Khayelitsha is an example of an area cleared in the apartheid era without
    respect for the prevailing environmental conditions, such as the Kuils
    river. The river is now surfacing in the form of wetlands, which are
    reportedly polluted by industrial processes further upstream and
    inappropriate residential use, thereby creating unsanitary conditions for
    the community.

The ANCs response:

  • The national Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), under an ANC
    Minister, has initiated a series of policy reforms, culminating in the Water
    Act and Water Services Act, as well as an inter-Departmental Sanitation
    policy to speed the delivery of basic water services to the whole
    population.
  • DWAF have initiated reform to ensure environmental assessment of dams.
  • Land based sewerage systems part of new policy.
  • DWAF in the Western Cape has studied various options for conserving and
    providing sufficient water to the Province in the future. A water saving
    campaign, and a number of water supply schemes, on which the public has been
    consulted, have been prioritised.
  • DWAF also launched the Working for Water Programme in 1996 to clear
    thirsty invading alien plants, which are estimated to absorb 7% of South
    Africa?s mean annual run-off. This has resulted 240 projects clearing 220
    000 hectares of alien vegetation throughout the country, while employing 42
    000 workers targeted for poverty relief. 52 of these projects were located
    in the most critical areas of the Western Cape.
  • A resource economics study by Dr Christo Marais, Western Cape Working for
    Water projects? leader, indicates that, in many areas, the financial
    benefits of making productive use of just half the enhanced run-off of
    water, as well as the savings from being able to postpone expensive capital
    infrastructure (e.g. new dams), could alone pay off the clearing bill of
    R600m per year.
  • While the ANC held the environment portfolio in the Western Cape, RDP
    projects focused on cleaning up local communities and provided job creation
    at the local level as in Khayelitsha.

4.2 Waste generation and management of waste and pollution

Increased demand for goods had led to the increased generation of waste. An
integrated approach is needed which addresses both industrial and domestic
players and must address the consumerist issues, including planned obsolescence,
industrial capitalisation- as the fundamental issue is that exponential
overproduction (due to factors such as advertising) contributes to the increased
generation of waste.

The issues:

  • Increased generation of waste coupled with inappropriate strategies to
    address this, such as incinerators which produce dangerous heavy metals and
    dioxins.
  • Absence of waste separation at source or equivalent strategies to reduce
    landfill volumes.
  • Polluting industries and waste dumps are most often located in areas in
    the Province where poor people live, with a lack of controls and protection
    in place. These result in serious threats to the resident population?s
    health and well-being.
  • Inadequate utilities like electricity and services like toilets, potable
    water and waste disposal often result in severely polluted and unhygienic
    conditions within the Province?s already over-crowded informal settlements.

Examples:

  • Overall, the most affluent sector of the population produces about 2kg of
    domestic waste per person while the landfill sites are sited next to the
    poor communities who only produce 0.5kg of domestic waste per person.
  • In Tafelsig, Mitchell?s Plain, illegally dumped medical waste resulted in
    over 200 children having to be tested for infectious diseases, including
    AIDS, after they had been found playing with the discarded syringes.
  • In Khayelitsha, there is no properly co-ordinated refuse removal service
    and many of the open spaces have been used as illegal dump sites, including
    for toxic waste. Even the legal municipal waste disposal site, Swartklip, is
    poorly managed and associated with polluted surrounding ground water and
    unsanitary conditions.
  • In Philippi, it is reported that trucks from supermarkets dump rotten
    fruit, vegetables and other decaying food stuffs, while building companies
    tip rubble and scrap. This dumping is illegal, unsightly and poses various
    health risks to the community.

The ANCs response:

  • The ANC has spearheaded a national policy initiative on Integrated
    Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa, currently at White Paper
    stage and expected to be enacted into law in the next parliamentary sitting.
    This sets out the country?s first comprehensive policy on pollution
    prevention, waste minimisation, impact control and remediation.
  • The ANC has encouraged the support of various independent public and
    grassroots initiatives in the Western Cape on issues of pollution and waste,
    including NGOs projects for example a waste minimisation campaign ,
    educational projects on litter, a community waste management programme in
    Langa, and submissions to the poverty, inequality and environment hearings.
  • ANC MP?s have assisted various local communities in the Province to obtain
    basic services, to direct municipal effort towards cleaning up areas.
  • Before 1994, waste management services in poor areas were not given
    priority. When the ANC took over the environment portfolio in the province,
    RDP related greening projects were initiated and clean up campaigns were run
    in the townships, as part of a larger goal of providing green space and
    addressing waste management issue.
  • The ANC in Khayelitsha worked with local structures and communities to
    stop illegal dumping of toxic waste by industry.

5. Environmental Governance and
Management

The ANC believes that the foundation of a sustainable society lies in the
strength of its environmental governance and management systems. All
institutions, including their activities and projects, should include structures
for transparent govenance and procedures for responsible management of
environmental impacts.

The main issues are around involvement of interested and effective parties in
environmental decision making and environmentally sustainable urban and
industrial planning.

Examples:

Within the provincial NP govermnent the focus in still concentrated on nature
conservation issues and environmental justice issues receive a low priority,
demonstrated by the capacity of nature conservation, with approx. 500 people,
and the capacity of the environmental function (including pollution and waste
control) with only 15-20 people.

Under the National Party-led government, there have been 5 MEC?s for the
environment since 1994. This shows a further lack of commitment to the
environmental portfolio.

5.1 Stakeholder participation

The issues:

  • Many activities and decisions with significant associated environmental
    impacts have in the past proceeded without adequate participation by
    interested and affected parties. Participation should include provision of
    information, consultation with representative bodies and communities, and
    due consideration of inputs and proposed alternatives.
  • Many of the institutions making decisions affecting the communities and
    the environment are not representative of the broader South African society
    or their interests.

Example:

  • The Liesbeeck-Black River Confluence has been subjected to piecemeal and
    ad hoc development. Developments such as The Courtyard were widely opposed
    by grassroots environmental and community organisations and attempts at
    consultation by local government were judged completely inadequate.

ANC response:

  • The ANC participated in provincial workshops which contributed to the
    development of the National Environmental Management Policy (the CONNEP
    process), which provides for DEAT (the National Department of Environment
    Affairs and Tourism) to co-ordinate all environment responsibilities - to
    act as lead agent.
  • The ANC has been successful in supporting and campaigning for greater
    stakeholder participation in decision-making around environmental issues:
    members of the ANC Environmental desk have effectively participated in the
    Peninsula Mountain Forum, the Garden Route Trust and the Valkenburg
    Confluence Alliance.
  • The ANC Environment Desk has fostered grassroots community representation
    on various environmental networks and forums. It has also included
    representatives from numerous of these bodies in its own activities and
    governance structure.
  • The ANC supported its members involved in the fishing industry through the
    formation of the ANC fishing desk which then contributed to marine fisheries
    policy and new act to ensure equity and that past injustices would be
    redressed.
  • When the ANC was part of the government of provincial unity in the Western
    Cape the ANC MEC for environment called a consultative conference to chart a
    way forward for the environment department in the province. This included
    all stakeholders as part of participatory democracy.

5.2 Urban and industrial planning

Sustainable Development is dependent on full participation in decision-making
leading to negotiated agreement in all areas of urban and industrial planning.

The issues:

  • Under the National Party provincial government, in many areas of the
    Province, urban and industrial development is occurring at the expense of
    the environment including the people. This inappropriate planning failed to
    serve the broader community leading to an inability to contain urban sprawl,
    loss of open green space, development of ecologically or scenically
    sensitive areas, negative impacts from traffic and transport and
    environmental issues linked to overcrowding and an under-provision of
    utilities and services.
  • Many industries and government authorities are inadequately managing their
    polluting impacts on the environment and on surrounding communities, with a
    resulting loss in environmental quality and unnecessary increase in
    health-related complaints. Insufficient and inadequate EIAs (environmental
    impact assessments) are being conducted on new developments in the Western
    Cape, the standard of environmental monitoring enforcement is poor, and few
    institutions have implemented formal environmental management systems.

Examples:

  • The proposed development of the ecologically, culturally and scenically
    sensitive areas such as Oudekraal on the slopes of Table Mountain.
  • Large informal settlements such as Marconi Beam, Masiphumelele and parts
    of Crossroads, without houses, water, sanitation or electricity
  • The disastrous toxic blue algae growth which occurred in the Noordhoek
    vlei due to industrial and municipal pollution and which required a massive
    intervention of salt-dosing to remediate.
  • The polluting impacts of Caltex refinery and the Kynoch plant on the
    communities surrounding Milnerton and the failed- ?good neighbourly
    agreement? in which Caltex set specific targets for reducing its emissions.
  • Continuing environmental and safety concerns regarding the operation of
    the Koeberg Nuclear Power station near Melkbosstrand, as well as proposed
    new ?mini-nukes? along the West Coast. Critical issues include: continued
    exposure of nuclear workers, nuclear fallout to local communities and dairy
    farms, the potential of radioactive contamination from a possible accident,
    hazardous waste treatment and disposal and the eventual decommissioning of
    the radioactive plant.

The ANC response:

  • The ANC has been active in supporting calls for improved management of the
    environmental impacts of industrial and urban development, including more
    stringent and effective execution of the EIA regulations in the Province and
    the recommendations of the Sustainable Cities Programme.
  • The ANC was instrumental in the formation of the Provincial Developmental
    Council, a multi-stakeholder body including environmental representation by
    the ANC Environment Desk and others, tasked with deriving a consensus
    development strategy for the Western Cape.
  • The ANC and its grassroots environmental alliances have been instrumental
    in the fostering of a partnership approach between government and civil
    society in development-related processes, at the national level with the
    Development Facilitation Act, and at a provincial level, with the Planning
    and Development Bill, and at a local level with the formation of the
    participatory development process for Valkenburg area.

6. Conservation of Biodiversity

The ANC recognises that the basis of a prosperous environmentally conscious
sustainable economic development includes the maintenance of ecological systems
and processes (including protected areas such as nature reserves), and the
socially equitable use of our natural resources.

6.1 Equitable conservation areas

The issues:

  • Loss of natural areas of ecological diversity and related species
    extinction has become a serious global problem. These ecosystems may
    contain, for example, essential life-supporting functions, valuable natural
    resources or potential medicinal remedies, which are lost forever if not
    conserved.
  • Prior to 1994, conservation was based on an exclusive approach which
    deprived indigenous communities of access to the ?reserved? land or use of
    its resources. This needs to change in favour of a more inclusive,
    sustainable use approach.

Examples:

  • The Cape?s fynbos vegetation is a unique and extremely diverse floral
    kingdom in global terms (an international hotspot), but continues to
    be lost to development. For example, at present, it?s estimated that less
    than 2% of the unique renosterveld shrubland remains in the Province.
    Situations like this have been among the justification for establishing the
    Cape Peninsula National Park.
  • Indigenous people were forcibly removed in the past from their land to
    make way for many national parks, such as the Kalahari Gemsbok Park.
  • In the past, various sections of the Cape coastline have been declared
    Marine Reserves, excluding subsistence fishing communities who struggle to
    retain access to their source of livelihood.

The ANC response:

  • The ANC and its grassroots alliances have been active in engaging with
    Cape Nature Conservation and the South African National Parks authorities to
    ensure an inclusive approach is adopted to biodiversity conservation in the
    Province.
  • The ANC Environment Desk has ensured representation on the forums and
    coalitions, and supports an inclusive, equitable, sustainable use approach
    to the recently declared Cape Peninsula Mountain Park.
  • The ANC has remained supportive of small, subsistence fishing communities
    and their right to practice their livelihoods in a sustainable way.
  • Despite having promoted the establishment of a statutory board to take on
    all the nature conservation functions within the province, the NP provincial
    government also proposed the Private Nature Reserves Bill which focuses on
    nature conservation issues. While the ANC-led government has focused on an
    integrated approach to environment at the national level, the National Party
    in the Western Cape has maintained a conservation ethos which is exclusive.
    This manifests itself in the private nature reserves bill, which will
    fragment nature conservation further.
  • Brenton Butterfly: The ANC in the provincial legislature took the issue of
    the Brenton Blue butterfly in the Knysna area to the national level as the
    provincial NP government appeared only interested in short term economic
    gains for a few people and are not interested in long term sustainability.

6.2 Sustainable eco-tourism

The issues:

South Africa?s and in particular, the Western Cape Province?s natural scenic
diversity and beauty are increasingly attracting tourists who are drawn to the
pristine environment of the Cape. However, the benefits of this tourism have
been inequitably distributed, due to the industry being dominated by
big-business tourism operators and facilities, with limited involvement by small
business and local community members.

Little attention has been paid to maintaining ecological integrity which is
the basis for eco-tourism, or to managing the environmental impacts associated
with increased tourism itself.

Examples:

  • Benefits of the Cape tourist trade are concentrated among hotel chains,
    while several large tour operators dominate the delivery of tourist
    packages.
  • The Study on Air Pollution, (the Brown Haze Study) conducted by UCT shows
    the extent of Cape Town?s air pollution smog problem, one potential
    environmental disincentive to visiting tourists.
  • No comprehensive environmental carrying capacity study for tourism has
    been carried out for the Province or its metropolitan areas.

The ANCs response:

  • The ANC, through its national leadership of the Department of
    Environmental Affairs and Tourism, has introduced policy reforms which begin
    to tackle the issue of equity and distribution of tourism benefits.
  • The ANC Environment Desk while supportive of the socio-economic benefits
    of increased tourism, has remained constructively critical of the negative
    impacts of this activity, for example ribbon coastal developments which cut
    off communities from access to recreational and subsistence activities along
    the coast.

7. The ANC in
Government in the Western Cape

After the 1999 elections, the ANC will seek to implement the gains of the
national ANC govenment and to consolidate an integrated approach. This will
include strategies to deal with past environmental injustices and will ensure
that the Western Cape is set on a path of sustainable development:

7.1 Water:

The ANC would use the catchment area as the basic unit for planning,
development and harvesting water resources. Programmes would focus on water
demand management and ensuring that water is not wasted through leaking pipes
that everyone has access to clean water in their homes and schools. Illegal
dumping and irresponsible industrial activity which pollutes the aquifer would
be stopped. A long term objective would be that Canalisation of rivers would be
reversed and the flood plains used for recreational purposes where appropriate.

7.2 Energy:

An accelerated research program on renewable energy would be undertaken,
particularly solar and wind energy, pilot programmes would be increased in
suitable areas, focusing on local cost-effective technology which increases
sustainable jobs. The future use of Nuclear power will be reviewed. Other
cost-effective, ecologically less damaging alternatives will be examined.

7.3 Air:

Clean technology programmes would be implemented as a matter of urgency to
minimise air pollution, in order to improve the quality of health of our urban
populations especially children and old people. Those industries which have
caused the problems will be targeted to assist in cleaning up. (Polluter pays
principle)

7.4 Biodiversity:

All life forms and ecological systems have intrinsic value and the integrity
of our fynbos systems must be conserved. Benefits arising from the use and
development of the Western Cape?s biological resources will be fairly and
equitably shared. The rights to use biological resources will be equitably
allocated and will recognise the need to achieve conservation and sustainable
use.

7.5 Urban agriculture and open space:

The concept of productive open space (e.g. food gardens, small stock grazing,
horticulture, agro-forestry) and passive open space will be interlinked in an
integrated approach to green spaces in urban areas. The province will commit
itself to the green corridors from mountain to sea. Those open spaces in the
townships designated parks will be rehabilitated for communities to benefit
from.

7.6 Coastal Zone:

Development in the coastal zone should be both equitable and sustainable. It
must be compatible with the sharing of benefits among the largest number of
people possible as well as with safeguarding and conserving the diversity of
available sites and resources. The current trend towards upmarket exclusive
affluent estates should be reviewed.

7.7 Fisheries:

The implementation of the transformation process has met with serious
obstacles detrimental to the health and welfare of the fishing communities.
However, the ANC will ensure that distribution of access rights to fisheries
will be equitable and would ensure that the needs of artisanal fishers are
balanced with the needs of an export industry. The fishing traditions of the
Western Cape should be acknowledged. Fishing Tourism will be promoted to
increase jobs available in the fishing sector while protecting the fish stocks.

7.8 Transport:

Transport is an environmental issue as it has implications for pollution,
congestion and urban planning. A provincial public transport system that
services the urban areas as well as the rural areas needs to be established. The
use of public transport systems above private cars will be encouraged by
legislation and economic incentives. Bus and taxi lanes will be introduced
widely and research into electric-taxis will be initiated in consultation with
the taxi industry.

7.9 Integrated waste management:

An integrated waste minimisation and management strategy will be implemented.
Waste management including waste separation at source, and recycling systems
which focus on local economic empowerment will be implemented. Dumping of waste
will be highly regulated to ensure a cradle to grave approach. Generators of
waste will bear the environmental, social and economic costs to society of
resulting pollution, and the responsibility for any consequences. The cross
boundary movement of toxic waste, including nuclear waste will be banned. The
government will implement a policy of using recycled materials in all its
departments wherever possible thereby contributing to the recycling and
reduction waste.

Marine sewage outfall pipes will be phased out in favour of land-based
sewerage systems.

7.10 Development Planning

Decisions about resources will be guided by economic approaches. These will
consider the full environmental costs and benefits of projects, plans and
policies which impact on the environment, and will internalise costs borne by
society. These will reflect both the economic loss that results when
biodiversity is degraded or lost, as well as the value gained from conserving
the resource. Where there are threats of serious damage to the environment, a
lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing
measures to prevent degradation or loss i.e. the societal costs will be included
in the cost of projects. (Precautionary principle)

7.11 Institutional framework:

Currently, there is an absence of an accountable, transparent institutional
framework in the Western Cape Province under the NP government. The ANC commits
itself to an accountable, transparent framework including:

  1. an environment department which will take on a strong lead agent role as
    at the national level.
  2. strong research and development capacity and should also monitor and audit
    other government agencies in the province to ensure compliance with
    environmental norms and standards. Environmental reporting should be
    required for all companies in the Western Cape.
  3. the ANC will promote the development and application of appropriate
    environmental economics measures (e.g. resource accounts), instruments (e.g.
    pollution taxes) and methodologies (e.g. environmental valuation), to
    support the implementation of sustainable development in the Province.
  4. an appeal process whereby the decision can be reviewed. This review is not
    limited to administrative review but must also include substantive
    issues.
  5. consultative fora at regional levels of government to advise government.
    These consultative fora should consist of representatives of civil society
    including NGOs, CBOs, labour, business. Specifically: Fishing fora at local
    level to provide a communication channel between fishing communities and the
    Sea Fisheries Directorate.
  6. Capacity Building: At the provincial level, the number of personnel in the
    environmental department will be increased, and financial resources should
    be allocated to environmental functions as a priority to redress previous
    environmental injustices.
  7. access to information to enable people to:
  • protect their health and well-being both at home and at work,
  • to protect the environment,
  • to participate in environmental governance,
  • to comply with environmental policy, legislation and regulation.
  1. provincial government environmental awareness programmes based on an
    appreciation of indigenous and local environmental knowledge, which should
    enhance civil society?s capability to monitor and care for their local
    environment.
  2. Environmental education will also be integrated into the formal education
    system.