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ANC 48th National Conference

Durban, July 1991

Final Resolution on Strategy and Tactics



  1. That the fundamental elements of apartheid colonialism remain in place
  2. That the repeal of some apartheid laws has left the basic political,social,
    gender and economic relations of oppression and exploitation intact
  3. That in many respects the conditions of the oppressed people have deteriorated,
    with violent attacks on our communities, lowering of living standards,
    increasing homelessness, unemployment, retrenchment, a deepening of the
    educational crisis to disastrous proportions and other social evils


  1. That the struggles of the people and the support of the international
    community have created the possibility of a negotiated resolution of the
    conflict in our country
  2. That the regime has been obliged to accept the fact that it does not
    have the strength to sustain apartheid in the old way and has therefore
    had to enter into talks with the ANC
  3. That despite the advances made by the liberation movement, the De Klerk
    regime still retains the capacity to implement countermeasures on a whole
    range of fronts, and that its objective is to retain the essentials of
    white domination under a new guise
  4. That the regime seeks to discredit and weaken the ANC and other democratic
    forces, claim legitimacy for itself as the main agent of change, divide
    the forces of liberation while broadening its own base, pacify the masses
    and thus become the supreme manager of the current period


  1. The struggle for the elimination of apartheid colonialism should intensify
    until a democratic constitution and government are in place
  2. It is in the interest of the people of South Africa that the negotiating
    process should seek to place political power in their hands in the shortest
    possible time.
  3. The negotiating process should involve the widest spectrum of the people
    and their various democratic formations ensuring that they determine the
    final outcome through mass action.
  4. Negotiations must be conducted on the basis of consultation an accountability
    between the leadership and ANC structures
  5. Negotiations can only succeed in the context of intensified struggle
    on all fronts and in combination with other forms of struggle.


That the ANC remains committed to the elimination of apartheid in all
its manifestations and the creation of a united, democratic nonracial and
nonsexist state.

BELIEVING THAT SUCH a transformation can only be achieved through
the all round intensification of struggle against the regime

COMMITS itself to strengthen and direct all four pillars of our
struggle, to strengthen the ANC in negotiations, while simultaneously remaining
prepared for any attempts by reactionary forces to defeat the process.



Mass organisation and mobilisation is at the centre of our struggle.


This entails ANC involvement,including actions through organs of people`s
power, in day to day activities of the people on all fronts. Such action
would also entail demands related t transition, particularly for a sovereign
interim government an sovereign constituent assembly, and the question
of the transfer o power.


That the ANC is a national liberation movement provider leadership
to its members and the oppressed and democratic force of South Africa generally,
over a wide range of issues. The ANC i not a political party. In formulating
our policies for a democrat South Africa these should relate to mass struggles
and provide opportunities for the masses to assert their just demands.

  1. The underground remains essential and needs to be strengthen since
    the process of change is not irreversible and violent acts counterrevolution
    against the forces of liberation and the oppressed people in general continue
    to be perpetrated


Armed struggle. Armed action has been suspended, but the arm struggle
remains a pillar of our struggle. In a situation where the regime pursues
or allows violence against us as part of negotiations strategy it is essential
for us to strengthen people`s army, Umkhonto we Sizwe, contribute decisively
building the defensive capacity of communities who are victims potential
victims of the current reign of terror.


We also need to undertake various measures to prepare to build an army
of a democratic South Africa

  1. The international pillar of our struggle has to be strengthened. Governments
    and international solidarity groups need to be given a clear understanding
    of the current situation and the perspectives of the ANC. The international
    community needs to continue their work against apartheid until a new democratic
    constitution is in place. At the same time the ANC needs to actively seek
    support of and pressure from the international community for an end to
    the violence against our people, the demand for a sovereign interim government,sovereign
    constituent assembly and a democratic constitution. In all its international
    work the ANC needs to ensure that it retains the initiative


  1. To continue pursuing negotiations as a means towards achieving our
    strategic objective of transfer of power to the people
  2. To strengthen the ANC as a mass-based, democratic organisation, rooted
    amongst the people, through systematic organisation mobilisation
  3. To increase the capacity of the ANC to creatively lead the people in
    mass action, and for the masses to participate actively and take initiatives
    at various levels.


That this process can be facilitated by the strengthening of the tripartite
alliance of the ANC, SACP and COSATU, as a fighting force at national,
regional and local levels.


That the goals of the ANC can best be achieved by uniting the broadest
range of people behind its democratic goals.


  1. To move speedily towards the building of a broad patriotic front to
    further the achievement of common democratic goals
  2. And to go beyond this and draw in as many categories of people and
    organisations behind the broad goals of non-racialism, non-sexism and democracy
  3. To devise and implement a programme of action aimed at keeping the
    initiative in the hands of the democratic forces and compelling the government
    to meet our just demands.


  1. That our strategies and tactics will be informed by the experience
    of all our people, including those sections of our population which are
    not sufficiently involved in the ANC
  2. Our strategy and tactics will also be informed by the experience of
    women, especially African women who are the most oppressed section of our
  3. That the organisation will increase its emphasis on rural areas and
    bantustans and all other areas being given insufficient attention
  4. To marshall the necessary personnel and resources to implement an effective
    negotiations programme
  5. That the period ahead will be one of intensified struggle that will
    see decisive steps towards achievement of our basic demands leading towards
    the transfer of power to the people and peace under a democratic constitution.