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2. Meeting Basic Needs

2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

2.1.1Poverty is the single greatest burden of South Africa`s people,
and is the direct result of the apartheid system and the grossly
skewed nature of business and industrial development which
accompanied it. Poverty affects millions of people, the majority
of whom live in the rural areas and are women. It is estimated
that there are at least 17 million people surviving below the
Minimum Living Level in South Africa, and of these at least 11
million live in rural areas. For those intent on fermenting
violence, these conditions provide fertile ground.

2.1.2It is not merely the lack of income which determines poverty.
An enormous proportion of very basic needs are presently
unmet. In attacking poverty and deprivation, the RDP aims to
set South Africa firmly on the road to eliminating hunger,
providing land and housing to all our people, providing access
to safe water and sanitation for all, ensuring the availability of
affordable and sustainable energy sources, eliminating
illiteracy, raising the quality of education and training for
children and adults, protecting the environment, and improving
our health services and making them accessible to all.

2.1.3With a per capita gross national product (GNP) of more than
R8,500 South Africa is classified as an upper middle income
country. Given its resources, South Africa can afford to feed,
house, educate and provide health care for all its citizens. Yet
apartheid and economic exploitation have created the gross
and unnecessary inequalities among us. Unlocking existing
resources for reconstruction and development will be a critical
challenge during the process of reconstruction.

2.2 VISION AND OBJECTIVES

2.2.1The RDP links reconstruction and development in a process
that will lead to growth in all parts of the economy, greater
equity through redistribution, and sustainability. The RDP is
committed to a programme of sustainable development which
addresses the needs of our people without compromising the
interests of future generations. Without meeting basic needs,
no political democracy can survive in South Africa. We cannot
undo the effects of apartheid overnight, but an extreme sense
of urgency is required because reconstruction and
development are major thrusts of the National Peace Initiative.

2.2.2Attacking poverty and deprivation is the first priority
of the democratic government, and the RDP sets out a facilitating
and enabling environment to this end. The RDP addresses issues of
social, institutional, environmental and macro-economic
sustainability in an integrated manner, with specific attention to
affordability. We acknowledge the crucial role of provincial and
local governments in adopting and implementing what are described
here mainly as national-level programmes to meet basic needs. The
RDP is also based on the premise that user charges will take into
account socio-economic circumstances.

2.2.3The central objective of our RDP is to improve the quality of
life of all South Africans, and in particular the most poor and
marginalised sections of our communities. This objective
should be realised through a process of empowerment which
gives the poor control over their lives and increases their ability
to mobilise sufficient development resources, including from
the democratic government where necessary. The RDP
reflects a commitment to grassroots, bottom-up development
which is owned and driven by communities and their
representative organisations.

2.2.4The strategy for meeting basic needs rests on four pillars,
namely:

2.2.4.1creating opportunities for all South Africans to develop
to their full potential;

2.2.4.2boosting production and household income through job
creation, productivity and efficiency, improving
conditions of employment, and creating opportunities
for all to sustain themselves through productive
activity;

2.2.4.3improving living conditions through better access to
basic physical and social services, health care, and
education and training for urban and rural
communities, and

2.2.4.4establishing a social security system and other safety
nets to protect the poor, the disabled, the elderly and
other vulnerable groups.

2.2.5Through these strategies the RDP aims to meet the basic
needs of the South African population in an integrated manner,
combining urban, peri-urban and rural development processes.
The integration of the RDP strategies is explained in Chapter
Four, `Building the Economy`. Priority areas that are
considered in the present chapter are job creation through
public works programmes, and provision of a variety of basic
needs:

  • land reform
  • housing and services
  • water and sanitation
  • energy and electrification
  • telecommunications
  • transport
  • environment
  • nutrition
  • health care
  • social security and social welfare

(The RDP objectives in education and training, arts and
culture, sport and recreation, and youth development are
elaborated in Chapter Three, `Developing our Human
Resources`.)

2.2.6A programme of affirmative action must address the deliberate
marginalisation from economic, political and social power of
black people, women, and rural communities. Within this
programme particularly vulnerable groups such as farm
workers, the elderly and the youth require targeted
intervention.

2.2.7The role of women within the RDP requires particular
emphasis. Women are the majority of the poor in South Africa.
Mechanisms to address the disempowerment of women and
boost their role within the development process and economy
must be implemented. The RDP must recognise and address
existing gender inequalities as they affect access to jobs, land,
housing, etc.

2.2.8The issue of population growth must be put into perspective.
The present population policy, which asserts that
overpopulation is the cause of poverty, ignores the role of
apartheid in creating poverty, and also implies that the
population growth rate is escalating (which is untrue). It is true,
however, that a relatively high population growth rate
exacerbates the basic needs backlogs our society faces.
Raising the standard of living of the entire society, through
successful implementation of the RDP, is essential over the
longer term if we are to achieve a lower population growth
rate. In particular, the impact of any programme on the
population growth rate must be considered. A population
committee should be located within the national RDP
implementing structure. Policies on international migration
must be reassessed bearing in mind the long-term interests of
all of the people of the sub-continent.

2.2.9The lack of accurate statistics to quantify and locate the
problem of poverty underlines the need for a national unit to
monitor poverty and deprivation in an ongoing manner, and
guide further interventions. The unit must develop and evaluate
key indicators for measuring the success of the RDP. It must
pay special attention to women`s legal, educational and
employment status and the rates of infant and maternal
mortality and teenage pregnancy. Indeed, monitoring and
gathering of all statistical data must, where relevant,
incorporate the status of women and their economic position
with specific reference to race, income distribution, rural and
urban specifics, provincial dimensions, and age particularities
(for example, women pensioners and young women). It is also
necessary to develop a more acute demographic map of our
people, both as to where they are presently located and, more
importantly, where they could move so as to facilitate supply of
infrastructure and services.

2.2.10The first democratic South African government should sign and
implement the International Covenant on Economic, Cultural
and Social Rights (and related conventions) and establish a
domestic equivalent of a high-profile Covenant review
committee and reporting procedure.

2.3 JOBS THROUGH PUBLIC WORKS

2.3.1The democratic government must play a leading role in
building an economy which offers to all South Africans the
opportunity to contribute productively. All job creation
programmes should cater particularly for women and youth.
Implementing agencies should include representatives from
women`s and youth organisations. Further job creation policies
are identified in Chapter Four, `Building the Economy`.

2.3.2In the short term, the RDP must generate programmes to
address unemployment. These measures must be an integral
part of the programme to build the economy, and must also
relate to meeting basic needs.

2.3.3Although a much stronger welfare system is needed to support
all the vulnerable, the old, the disabled and the sick who
currently live in poverty, a system of `handouts` for the
unemployed should be avoided. All South Africans should have
the opportunity to participate in the economic life of the
country.

2.3.4All short-term job creation programmes must ensure adequate
incomes and labour standards, link into local, regional or
national development programmes, and promote education,
training and community capacity and empowerment.

2.3.5Public works programme. The key area where special
measures to create jobs can link to building the economy and
meeting basic needs is in redressing apartheid-created
infrastructural disparities. There must be a coordinated national
public works programme to provide much-needed
infrastructure, to repair environmental damage, and to link
back into, expand and contribute to the restructuring of the
industrial and agricultural base.

2.3.6A further component of the public works programme must be
provision of education and training and the involvement of
communities in the process so that they are empowered to
contribute to their own governance. Assets created by a public
works project must be technically sound.

2.3.7The public works programme must maximise the
involvement of women and youth in the poorest rural households and
most deprived regions to create assets such as water supply,
sanitation and clinics. This must have significant socio-economic
benefits, particularly with respect to production which meets
women`s basic needs (such as child-care facilities).

2.3.8The public works programme must coordinate with and link to
other job creation and labour-intensive construction initiatives.
A community development fund could be set up within the
context of a national public works programme to make
resources available to communities. Care must be taken to
ensure that disbursements from such a fund are carefully
controlled and relate to local and regional development plans.

2.3.9A national coordinating agency located in the implementing
office of the RDP must ensure that the public works
programme is based on the capital programmes at central,
provincial and local level, give priority to job creation and
training, target the most marginalised sectors of society, and
where possible encourage and support self-employment
through small and medium enterprise creation to ensure
sustainability of skills. Such programmes must not abuse
labour standards nor create unfair competition within sectors of
the economy.

2.4 LAND REFORM

2.4.1Land is the most basic need for rural dwellers. Apartheid
policies pushed millions of black South Africans into
overcrowded and impoverished reserves, homelands and
townships. In addition, capital-intensive agricultural policies led
to the large-scale eviction of farm dwellers from their land and
homes. The abolition of the Land Acts cannot redress
inequities in land distribution. Only a tiny minority of black
people can afford land on the free market.

2.4.2A national land reform programme is the central and driving
force of a programme of rural development. Such a
programme aims to address effectively the injustices of forced
removals and the historical denial of access to land. It aims to
ensure security of tenure for rural dwellers. And in
implementing the national land reform programme, and
through the provision of support services, the democratic
government will build the economy by generating large-scale
employment, increasing rural incomes and eliminating
overcrowding.

2.4.3The RDP must implement a fundamental land reform
programme. This programme must be demand-driven and
must aim to supply residential and productive land to the
poorest section of the rural population and aspirant farmers. As
part of a comprehensive rural development programme, it
must raise incomes and productivity, and must encourage the
use of land for agricultural, other productive, or residential
purposes.

2.4.4The land policy must ensure security of tenure for all South
Africans, regardless of their system of land-holding. It must
remove all forms of discrimination in women`s access to land.

2.4.5The land reform programme has two aspects: redistribution
of residential and productive land to those who need it but
cannot afford it, and restitution for those who lost land
because of apartheid laws.

2.4.6Land redistribution. The land redistribution programme will
realise its objectives in various ways, including strengthening
property rights of communities already occupying land,
combining market and non-market mechanisms to provide
land, and using vacant government land.

2.4.7The redistribution programme should use land already on sale
and land acquired by corrupt means from the apartheid state
or mortgaged to state and parastatal bodies. Where
applicable, it will expropriate land and pay compensation as the
Constitution stipulates. Land acquired from the apartheid state
through illegal means must be recovered after due process of
investigation. The land reform programme must include land
outside of the historically black areas. All legal provisions which
may impede the planning and affordability of a land reform
programme must be reviewed and if necessary revised.

2.4.8The democratic government must provide substantial funding
for land redistribution. In addition, beneficiaries must pay in
accordance with their means. A land tax on rural land must be
based on clear criteria, must help to free up underutilised land,
must raise revenues for rural infrastructure, and must promote
the productive use of land.

2.4.9Rural infrastructure, support services and training at all levels
must be provided to ensure that land can be utilised effectively.
Within this, water provision must take priority, followed by
provision of basic health care. To this end a safe rural water
supply programme must begin in the first year of the RDP.

2.4.10A democratic government must ensure secure tenure rights for
all South Africans by adopting a tenure policy that recognises
the diverse forms of tenure existing in South Africa. It must
support the development of new and innovative forms of
tenure such as Community Land Trusts and other forms of
group land-holding.

2.4.11Women face specific disabilities in obtaining land. The land
redistribution programme must therefore target women.
Institutions, practices and laws that discriminate against
women`s access to land must be reviewed and brought in line
with national policy. In particular, tenure and matrimonial laws
must be revised appropriately.

2.4.12The programme must include the provision of services to
beneficiaries of land reform so that they can use their land as
productively as possible. Assistance must include support for
local institution building, so that communities can devise
equitable and effective ways to allocate and administer land.

2.4.13Land restitution. To redress the suffering caused by the
policy of forced removals, the democratic government must,
through the mechanism of a land claims court, restore land to
South Africans dispossessed by discriminatory legislation since
1913. This court must be accessible to the poor and illiterate. It
must establish processes that enable it to take speedy
decisions. In order for this court to function effectively,
constitutional rights to restitution must be guaranteed.

2.4.14The land reform programme, including costing, implementing
mechanisms, and a training programme, must be in place
within one year after the elections. The programme must aim
to redistribute 30 per cent of agricultural land within the first
five years of the programme. The land restitution programme
must aim to complete its task of adjudication in five years.

2.5 HOUSING AND SERVICES

2.5.1The lack of adequate housing and basic services in urban
townships and rural settlements today has reached crisis
proportions. The urban housing backlog in 1990 was
conservatively estimated at 1.3 million units. Including hostels
and rural areas, the backlog rises to approximately three
million units. To this should be added an estimated 200,000
new households each year. There is, unfortunately, little
research available on the rural housing situation and the
bantustans.

2.5.2About 50,000 houses were built in South Africa in 1992. This
figure could reasonably be increased to over 300,000 units
each year by the end of the RDP`s five-year programme. At
minimum, one million low-cost houses should be constructed
over five years. These units should be specifically intended for
low-income households and should include the rural areas.

2.5.3The housing problems created by apartheid and by the limited
range of the capitalist housing markets have been aggravated
by the absence of a coherent national housing policy. A mass
housing programme can help generate employment, skills and
economic activity, both directly and indirectly, and should help
ensure peace and stability. A single national housing
department should help to consolidate the previously
fragmented approach. The private sector and civil society also
have important roles to play in expanding housing delivery and
financing capacity. The development of small, medium-sized
and micro enterprises owned and run by black people must be
incorporated into the housing delivery programme.

2.5.4Right to housing. The RDP endorses the principle that all
South Africans have a right to a secure place in which to live in
peace and dignity. Housing is a human right. One of the RDP`s
first priorities is to provide for the homeless.

2.5.5Although housing may be provided by a range of parties, the
democratic government is ultimately responsible for ensuring
that housing is provided to all. It must create a policy
framework and legislative support so that this is possible, and it
must allocate subsidy funds from the budget - to reach a goal
of not less than five per cent of the budget by the end of the
five-year RDP - so that housing is affordable to even the
poorest South Africans.

2.5.6The approach to housing, infrastructure and services must
involve and empower communities; be affordable,
developmental and sustainable; take account of funding and
resource constraints, and support gender equality. The RDP is
committed to establishing viable communities in areas close to
economic opportunities and to health, educational, social
amenities and transport infrastructure.

2.5.7Housing standards. As a minimum, all housing must provide
protection from weather, a durable structure, and reasonable
living space and privacy. A house must include sanitary
facilities, storm-water drainage, a household energy supply
(whether linked to grid electricity supply or derived from other
sources, such as solar energy), and convenient access to
clean water. Moreover, it must provide for secure tenure in a
variety of forms. Upgrading of existing housing must be
accomplished with these minimum standards in mind.

2.5.8Community organisations and other stakeholders must
establish minimum basic standards for housing types,
construction, planning and development, for both units and
communities. Legislation must also be introduced to establish
appropriate housing construction standards, although such
standards should not preclude more detailed provisions
negotiated at local level.

2.5.9Legislation. Legislation must be rapidly
developed to address issues such as tenants` rights, squatters`
rights, the rights of people living in informal settlements,
community reinvestment by banks, evictions, consumer protection,
land restoration, community participation in planning and
development, and anti-discrimination protection. Exploitation in
rentals charged and in quality of housing provided must be
specifically legislated against. All legislative obstacles and
constraints to housing and credit for women must be removed. The
democratic government must promote and facilitate women`s access to
housing and to appropriate community design. The provision of
appropriate housing for the elderly and the disabled is also an
important priority.

2.5.10Administration. Administrative procedures must be simple,
cheap, quick, transparent, must support community
participation and must prevent corruption, with no form of
discrimination of any kind whatsoever.

2.5.11Land. Land for housing must be suitably
located geologically, environmentally, and with respect to economic
opportunities and social amenities. The democratic government must
intervene to facilitate access to such land. Land speculation must
be prevented and land monopolies broken up. Land planning must
involve the communities affected. Land taxes and zoning should seek
to promote urban development patterns consistent with RDP
objectives.

2.5.12Tenure. The democratic government must ensure a wide
range of tenure options including individual and collective home
ownership as well as rental, and facilitate a wide range of
housing types. Sufficient affordable rental housing stock should
be provided to low-income earners who choose this option.

2.5.13The democratic government must support the transfer of
houses to those who have been denied the opportunity to own
houses in the past, especially female heads of household. The
transfer of houses to long-term residents, as has been
negotiated, must be completed. Fees charged by the
democratic government for the transfer of private housing must
be made more affordable.

2.5.14Subsidies. Government funds and private sector funding must
be blended in order to make housing finance affordable. A
national housing bank and national home loan guarantee fund
must be initiated to coordinate subsidies and financing most
efficiently. Subsidies must be provided in ways which reduce
corruption, promote transparency, target the poor and
eliminate gender discrimination. Mechanisms (such as time
limits on resale, or compulsory repayment of subsidies upon
transfer of property) must be introduced to prevent speculation
and downward raiding. Subsidies could apply to a variety of
tenure forms, but must be paid directly to individuals, groups or
community-controlled institutions. Communities must get
sufficient funds in order to ensure that they are not divided.

2.5.15Finance. End-user finance and credit must be
made available for diverse tenure forms, community designs and
housing construction methods. Commercial banks must be encouraged,
through legislation and incentives, to make credit and other
services available in low-income areas; `redlining` and other forms
of discrimination by banks must be prohibited. Community-controlled
financing vehicles must be established with both private sector and
government support where necessary. Locally controlled Housing
Associations or cooperatives must be supported, in part to take
over properties in possession of banks due to foreclosure.
Unemployment bond insurance packages and guarantee schemes with a
demand-side orientation must be devised. Interest rates must be
kept as low as possible.

2.5.16Hostels. Hostels must be transformed, upgraded and
integrated within a policy framework that recognises the
numerous interest groups in and around hostels and provides a
range of housing options, including both family units and single
people. The transformation of hostels must not deny any
individuals or households access to the cities, including
workers who maintain a rural base, families who desire
integration into the city, and women with no security. Policies
must address integration of hostels into communities, their
safety and privacy (especially for women and children), and the
various family living arrangements in hostels. Migrant labour, a
consequence of past recruitment policies, will persist in the
immediate future. Some housing types should be developed to
cater for migrant workers and for those who engage in circular
migration between city and countryside. Privately-owned
hostels must be given particular attention. Short-term repairs
(including provision of basic services and a baseline healthy
environment) are a first priority, but must be consistent with
long-term transformation. A fundamental point of departure is
affordability. The democratic government must upgrade
hostels where residents cannot pay costs. Hostels
programmes must put appropriate dispute resolution
mechanisms in place, must be linked to programmes for the
unemployed, and address the legacy of migrant labour.

2.5.17Rural housing. Rural people have specific
concerns around housing, such as tenure forms on trust land; the
relationship with the commercial agricultural sector; inadequate or
non-existent bulk infrastructure; farm workers housed on the farms;
the legacy of apartheid removals and resettlements; access to land,
and land claims procedures and processes. In rural areas, problems
of ensuring full property and home-ownership rights for women are
likely to be greater. A rural housing action plan must be developed
to address this. While recognising that rural incomes are far
lower, the democratic government must consider rural housing needs
in calculating backlogs, and make provision for gradually improving
housing in rural areas. In particular, labour tenants require
security of tenure, and legal defence and advice offices must be
established to assist farm workers in cases of eviction.

2.5.18Role players. All actors in the housing sector must be
identified and their roles clearly defined, to enable coordinated
and efficient housing provision. Role players include civic
associations and other community groups, the public sector,
non-governmental organisations, private sector developers and
construction materials firms, trade unions, financial institutions,
etc. The work of the National Housing Forum should be
encouraged to continue, but there must be effective public
sector participation as well. Duplication, inefficiency and
ineffectiveness must be eliminated.

2.5.19Construction. The costs of housing construction must be kept
as low as possible while meeting the proposed standards.
Bulk-buying facilities and other support mechanisms must be
introduced in order to maximise use of local materials and to
develop products that lower costs and increase the efficiency
of housing provision. The building materials industries must be
examined, both to improve productive output and to reduce
costs. Cartels, price agreements and market share
agreements must end, and consideration must be given to
public, worker and community-based ownership where the
market fails to provide a reasonably priced product.
Community-controlled building materials suppliers must be
encouraged, possibly with government subsidies to enhance
competitiveness. An enforceable Code of Conduct must be
established to guide developers. Special funds must be made
available to support small and medium-sized enterprises.
Resources should be provided in the form of loans for bridging
finance, and grants for training and entrepreneurial
development.

2.5.20Delivery. Delivery systems will depend upon
community participation. While the central government has financing
responsibilities, provincial and local governments should be the
primary agencies facilitating the delivery of housing and should be
particularly active in the delivery of rental housing stock.
Organisations of civil society should play a supportive role in
relation to local government to enhance the delivery process. The
roles of various entities in the private sector (the construction
and supplies industry, etc.), local business concerns, local
cooperatives and the concept of self-build in the delivery of
housing must be examined in the light of effectiveness and local
benefit. Delivery systems should aim to maximise job creation, the
use of local materials, and local income generation and training.
Support must be provided to black and, more generally, to small
builders.

2.5.21Community control. Beneficiary communities should be
involved at all levels of decision-making and in the
implementation of their projects. Communities should benefit
directly from programmes in matters such as employment,
training and award of contracts. Key to such participation is
capacity building, and funds for community-based
organisations must be made available. Educational institutions
must also be reorientated to provide the skills needed for
development.

2.6 WATER AND SANITATION

2.6.1Water is a natural resource, and should be made available in a
sustainable manner to all South Africans. Today, more than 12
million people do not have access to clean drinking water and
21 million people do not have adequate sanitation (toilets and
refuse removal). Less than half the rural population has a safe
and accessible water supply, and only one person in seven has
access to adequate sanitation. Communities have had little say
in the provision of water and sanitation, and decision-making in
the water delivery agencies has reflected broader apartheid
ideology. Access to water resources is dominated by a
privileged minority while the majority of the population enjoy
little or no water security.

2.6.2South Africa is a water-scarce country. The existing
limited water resources are also unevenly distributed, with 70 per
cent of the country receiving 11 per cent of the rainfall.
Apartheid South Africa used its military and economic might to
coerce its neighbours into acting as sources of water, sometimes to
the detriment of these countries` own water needs and of the
sub-continental watertable.

2.6.3Right to water. The fundamental principle of
our water resources policy is the right to access clean water -
`water security for all`. The RDP recognises the economic value of
water and the environment, and advocates an economically,
environmentally and politically sustainable approach to the
management of our water resources and the collection, treatment and
disposal of waste.

2.6.4Because of geographic limits to the availability of
water, there must be very careful attention paid to the location of
new settlements. The long-term environmental costs of sourcing
water from neighbouring countries and between provinces must be
given greater consideration. South Africa is also a drought-prone
country, and a national drought management system and water
reserves are a priority.

2.6.5Goals of water management. Water management has
three main goals: meeting every person`s health and functional
requirements, raising agricultural output, and supporting economic
development. Decisions on water resources must be transparent and
justified so as to reduce conflict between competing users. The use
of water must be balanced with a realisation of the dangers of
overuse and inappropriate disposal. Community organisations must
also receive training in water management and must ensure such
management is integrated into overall planning.

2.6.6The RDP`s short-term aim is to provide every person with
adequate facilities for health. The RDP will achieve this by
establishing a national water and sanitation programme which
aims to provide all households with a clean, safe water supply
of 20 - 30 litres per capita per day (lcd) within 200 metres, an
adequate/safe sanitation facility per site, and a refuse removal
system to all urban households.

2.6.7In the medium term, the RDP aims to provide an on-site supply
of 50 - 60 lcd of clean water, improved on-site sanitation, and
an appropriate household refuse collection system. Water
supply to nearly 100 per cent of rural households should be
achieved over the medium term, and adequate sanitation
facilities should be provided to at least 75 per cent of rural
households. Community/household preferences and
environmental sustainability will be taken into account.

2.6.8The RDP`s long-term goal is to provide every South African
with accessible water and sanitation.

2.6.9The RDP is committed to providing operation and maintenance
systems which ensure minimum disruptions in service within
two years. Particularly in rural areas, the RDP must develop
appropriate institutions, including village water committees.
Consultation with communities is essential in the provision of
water.

2.6.10Tariffs. To ensure that every person has an
adequate water supply, the national tariff structure must include
the following:

2.6.10.1a lifeline tariff to ensure that all South Africans are able
to afford water services sufficient for health and
hygiene requirements;

2.6.10.2in urban areas, a progressive block tariff to ensure that
the long-term costs of supplying large-volume users
are met and that there is a cross-subsidy to promote
affordability for the poor, and

2.6.10.3in rural areas, a tariff that covers operating and
maintenance costs of services, and recovery of capital
costs from users on the basis of a cross-subsidy from
urban areas in cases of limited rural affordability.

2.6.11The following institutions must be restructured:

2.6.11.1the Department of Water Affairs should be responsible
for the integrated management of the nation`s water
resources for the benefit of the whole nation, and
should take responsibility for building competent local
and provincial agencies that are capable of delivery;

2.6.11.2at a second tier, water resource management must be
founded on catchment-based institutions to ensure
effective control over and supply of water resources,
as well as effective management of and control over
waste water, which means that the boundaries of such
institutions will not necessarily coincide with provincial
boundaries, and

2.6.11.3at local level, local governments must be made
responsible for water distribution, provision of
adequate sanitation facilities and waste removal, and
the financing of these services through appropriate
tariff and local tax mechanisms.

2.6.12The RDP must undertake a process to involve all relevant
parties in updating the Water Act to ensure the right of all
South Africans to water security.

2.6.13South Africa has several major river systems which are shared
with neighbouring countries. Since there is likely to be a need
to import water from other countries, a future democratic
government must pursue a policy of mutual cooperation with
its neighbours and create bilateral and multilateral treaties
which ensure the fair and adequate allocation of water
resources to the benefit of the people of the region as a whole.

2.7 ENERGY AND ELECTRIFICATION

2.7.1Although energy is a basic need and a vital input into the
informal sector, the vast majority of South African households
and entrepreneurs depend on inferior and expensive fuels.
Rural women in particular face a heavy burden collecting wood
which is an inefficient and unhealthy fuel. Urban households
face high costs for paraffin and gas. Coal, where it is available,
is cheap but results in severe health problems, an underpaid
workforce, and the failure to assess and internalise
environmental costs. Although has excess generating
capacity, only 36 per cent of South African households have
access to electricity, leaving some three million households
unelectrified. Furthermore, some 19,000 black schools (86 per
cent) and around 4,000 clinics are currently without electricity.
Little attention has been paid to utilising sustainable energy
sources such as solar power.

2.7.2The control of electricity distribution by the system of racially
separate local government has resulted in a terribly
fragmented industry currently unable to finance or sustain a
large-scale electrification programme in an equitable fashion.
At present there are around 430 electricity distributors and
more than 1,000 domestic electricity tariffs in South Africa.
Rural electrification has been largely ignored except for
commercial white farms.

2.7.3Past South African energy policies concentrated on achieving
energy self-sufficiency at enormous cost (such as the Mossgas
project), but seriously neglected the household sector. Future
energy policy must concentrate on the provision of energy
services to meet the basic needs of poor households, stimulate
productive capacity and urgently meet the energy needs
associated with community services such as schools, clinics
and water supplies. Energy policies must be developed on the
basis of an integration of supply-side and demand-side
considerations.

2.7.4Energy sources. Immediate policies to meet energy needs
must include a low-smoke coal programme, improved
management of natural woodlands, social forestry
programmes, commercial woodlots, and support for the
transport of wood from areas of surplus to areas of need. Gas
and paraffin prices must be reduced through better regulation
and by bringing bulk supplies closer to households.

2.7.5Energy efficiency and conservation must be a cornerstone of
energy policies. This will involve the adoption of least-cost
planning approaches; the improvement of dwelling thermal
performance; the promotion of energy-efficient appliances; the
use of solar water heaters; appliance labelling, and the
implementation of time-of-use electricity tariffs. Financial
assistance to ensure households have access to efficient
appliances will be essential. The environmental impact of
different energy sources must be assessed.

2.7.6The regulation of liquid fuels is necessary to ensure a stable,
high-quality supply, stable investment and low input prices to
the economy and consumers.

2.7.7Electricity for all. An accelerated and sustainable
electrification programme must provide access to electricity for
an additional 2.5 million households by the year 2000, thereby
increasing the level of access to electricity to about 72 per cent
of all households (double the present number). Both grid and
non-grid power sources (such as solar cells and generators)
must be employed. All schools and clinics must be electrified
as soon as possible. Communities must be involved in the
planning and execution of this programme. Micro, small and
medium-sized enterprises must be given support and shown
preference in the tendering process.

2.7.8The electrification programme will cost around R12
billion with annual investments peaking at R2 billion. This must be
financed from within the industry as far as possible via
cross-subsidies from other electricity consumers. Where necessary
the democratic government will provide concessionary finance for
the electrification of poor households in remote rural areas. A
national Electrification Fund, underwritten by a government
guarantee, must be created to raise bulk finance from lenders and
investors for electrification. Such a fund could potentially be
linked to a Reconstruction Fund to be utilised for other related
infrastructural financing needs. A national domestic tariff
structure with low connection fees must be established to promote
affordability.

2.7.9Energy Policy Council. A national Energy Policy
Council should be established to bring together stakeholders
including the government, unions, civics, the energy industries,
and consumers. This Energy Policy Council should manage the
Electrification Fund and formulate energy policies.

2.7.10Until the formation of the Energy Policy Council the
National Electricity Forum must continue to work towards agreement
on the restructuring of the fragmented electricity industry. To
assist with this a powerful, independent, national electricity
regulator must be established to enforce public policy, ensure
long-term financial viability, assure environmental sustainability,
and act as an ombuds in the event of conflicts between consumers,
government and the electricity industry.

2.8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS

2.8.1Telecommunications is an information infrastructure
and must play a crucial role in South Africa`s health, education,
agricultural, informal sector, policing and safety programmes.
Under apartheid the provision of telecommunications was racially
distorted. For black people it is estimated that less than 1 line
per 100 persons is in place compared with about 60 lines per 100
white persons. Other countries with comparable per capita wealth
have 30 lines per 100 persons. The situation is far worse in rural
areas.

2.8.2The existing parastatal
Telkom is restricted by heavy
debt from engaging in substantial further borrowing, and an
indiscriminate privatisation process has fragmented the
telecommunications system. The lack of infrastructure has also
restricted the provision of services to peri-urban and rural areas.
Other telecommunications networks are not well integrated into the
existing Telkom network.

2.8.3The telecommunications sector is an indispensable
backbone for the development of all other socio-economic sectors.
An effective telecommunications infrastructure which includes
universal access is essential to enable the delivery of basic
services and the reconstruction and development of deprived
areas.

2.8.4The RDP aims to provide universal affordable access
for all as rapidly as possible within a sustainable and viable
telecommunications system; to develop a modern and integrated
telecommunications and information technology system that is
capable of enhancing, cheapening and facilitating education, health
care, business information, public administration and rural
development, and to develop a Southern African cooperative
programme for telecommunications. In terms of the RDP,
telecommunications services must be provided to all schools and
clinics within two years.

2.9 TRANSPORT

2.9.1The policy of apartheid has moved the poor away from job
opportunities and access to amenities. This has burdened the
workforce with enormous travel distances to their places of
employment and commercial centres, and thus with excessive
costs. Apartheid transport policy deprived the majority of
people of a say in transport matters, and has led to the
payment of huge travel subsidies; exposed commuters to vast
walking distances and insecure rail travel; failed to regulate the
kombi-taxi industry adequately; largely ignored the country`s
outrageous road safety record; paid little attention to the
environmental impact of transport projects, and facilitated
transport decision-making bodies that are unwieldy, unfocused,
unaccountable and bureaucratic.

2.9.2Rural areas require more frequent public transport and
improved facilities, at an affordable cost. There is inadequate
access for emergency services in rural areas, inadequate
public transport frequencies and route coverage, poor
coordination, and other inefficiencies. Indeed, in many rural
areas there is no public transport at all.

2.9.3An effective publicly-owned passenger transport system must
be developed, integrating road, rail and air transportation. All
privately-controlled passenger transport must be effectively
regulated and controlled. A future transport policy must:

2.9.3.1promote coordinated, safe, affordable public transport
as a social service;

2.9.3.2be flexible enough to take cognisance of local
conditions in order to make best use of the available
transport infrastructure;

2.9.3.3ensure accountability so that the people have control
over what is provided;

2.9.3.4take into account the transport needs of disabled
people;

2.9.3.5clearly define the responsibilities of the various
authorities;

2.9.3.6ensure comprehensive land-use/transport planning;

2.9.3.7promote road safety;

2.9.3.8review subsidies (both operating and capital);

2.9.3.9provide funds for long-term planning, and

2.9.3.10facilitate high-density development to ensure
efficient use of public transport.

2.9.4As population increases, the numbers of travellers and the total
distances travelled will also increase. The majority will be
unable to afford private transport and will be dependent upon
public transport. Given the need for increased mobility and the
cost and environmental impact of accommodating the private
motorist, the future emphasis must be on the provision of safe,
convenient, affordable public transport.

2.9.5Public transport. Commuters should be encouraged to use
public transport, and should be actively discouraged from using
cars (via parking, access and fuel levies). The funds so raised
must be used to directly benefit the provision of public
transport. As a first priority, rail transport must be extended.
Bus lines must act as feeders to rail services, or as prime
movers if rail is not available. Taxis must act as feeders to
bus/rail services or as prime movers if neither rail nor bus is
available. The subsidisation of parallel services along a
common route will be avoided. Rural areas require more
frequent public transport and improved facilities, at affordable
costs.

2.9.6At the same time, critical `bottlenecks` in the road infrastructure
should be improved so that the full capacity of the existing road
network can be realised. However, the provision of primary
road infrastructure must be directed towards and take
cognisance of public transport needs.

2.9.7Transport planning. The planning of transport for
metropolitan and major urban areas must be in accordance
with an urban/metropolitan growth management plan. A
hierarchy of modes should guide the financing of infrastructure
improvements and payment of operating subsidies for public
transport. Travel modes should not compete. In rural areas,
provincial governments and district councils must present
transport plans, including extensive road building and road
improvement.

2.9.8South Africa has the worst road safety record in the
world. Central government funds allocated to ameliorate this
situation via education, enforcement and engineering have been
negligible. Road safety must be given the priority it deserves. The
transport authorities must be charged with the task of reducing
accidents and must be given the funds to achieve that goal.

2.9.9For all public transport services to be fully integrated
their functioning must be coordinated and financed by one
organisation. The organisation should be accountable to the public
and responsible for the provision, coordination and funding of all
public transport and the infrastructure necessary for public
transport (in cooperation with the national public works
programme). The organisation should specifically address current
problems such as uncoordinated tariff structures, duplication of
services, and conflict as a result of different forms of ownership.
Minimum norms and standards, policy frameworks and the format of
transport plans for national, provincial, urban and rural areas
should form an integral part of the responsibilities of this
organisation.

2.9.10Provincial governments should be responsible for the
provision and coordination of all primary inter-city transport
outside the metropolitan areas and, on request, for localised,
minor improvements for towns and villages beyond metropolitan
areas.

2.9.11Metropolitan Transport Authorities (MTAs) should be
responsible for planning, coordination and provision of all
`metropolitan` transport facilities within metro areas. The MTAs
could undertake local authority projects on an agency basis. The
MTAs must be accountable to democratically elected metropolitan
governments, and all transport projects must be in accord with
metropolitan plans. Funding for public transport would come both
from central government and from local rates and taxes. The MTAs
must be empowered to impose such levies and taxes as may be
appropriate and the funds thus raised must be used primarily to
promote public transport.

2.9.12With respect to other forms of transport, international
conventions and treaties will determine part of the legal framework
in which sea and air transport develop. Infrastructural development
must, however, be extended through democratic consultations with
various stakeholders. Harmonisation of infrastructural, legal and
operational aspects of regional Southern African transport must be
considered a priority.

2.9.13The needs of women, children, and disabled people for
affordable and safe transport are important. Adequate public
transport at off-peak hours, and security measures on late-night
and isolated routes, must be provided. Additional subsidies for
scholars, pensioners and others with limited incomes will be
considered.

2.10 ENVIRONMENT

2.10.1Apartheid legislation distorted access to natural resources,
denying the majority of South Africans the use of land, water,
fisheries, minerals, wildlife and clean air. South Africa`s
apartheid policies, combined with the underregulated activities
of local and transnational corporations, contributed to the
degradation of environmental resources, including soil, water
and vegetation. They encouraged the misuse of fertilisers and
pesticides. They placed workers` lives at severe risk because
dangerous practices and substances were inadequately
monitored (mining in South Africa remains an extremely
dangerous job). Poverty and environmental degradation have
been closely linked. In general, existing environmental policies
allow inefficient and wasteful use of water, energy and raw
materials, and high levels of air and water pollution.

2.10.2The democratic government must ensure that all South African
citizens, present and future, have the right to a decent quality
of life through sustainable use of resources. To achieve this,
the government must work towards:

2.10.2.1equitable access to natural resources;

2.10.2.2safe and healthy living and working environments, and

2.10.2.3a participatory decision-making process around
environmental issues, empowering communities to
manage their natural environment.

2.10.3Environmental considerations must be built into every decision.
To accomplish this, procedures must be set in place which
oblige decision-makers to demonstrate what environmental
considerations they take into account when considering
projects.

2.10.4Development strategies must incorporate environmental
consequences in the course of planning. Measures such as land
reform, provision of basic infrastructure, housing and targeted
rural assistance (including extension services), and the
maintenance of food security should ultimately reduce pressure on
the natural environment.

2.10.5The democratic government must revise current
environmental legislation and administration with a view to
establishing an effective system of environmental management. It
must make use of environmental auditing, with provision for public
disclosure. It must monitor those activities of industry which
impact on the environment.

2.10.6Strategies should include:

2.10.6.1a system of waste management with emphasis on
preventing pollution and reducing waste through direct
controls, and on increasing the capacity of citizens and
government to monitor and prevent the dumping of
toxic wastes;

2.10.6.2participation of communities in management and
decision-making in wildlife conservation and the
related tourism benefits;

2.10.6.3environmental education programmes to rekindle our
people`s love for the land, to increase environmental
consciousness amongst our youth, to coordinate
environmental education with education policy at all
levels, and to empower communities to act on
environmental issues and to promote an environmental
ethic, and

2.10.6.4the establishment of procedures, rights and duties to
allow workers to monitor the effects of pollution, noise
levels and dangerous practices both within the
workplace and in its impact on surrounding
communities and environment.

2.10.7Marine resources must be managed and controlled for the
benefit of all South Africans, especially those communities
whose livelihood depends on resources from the sea. The
fishing stock must be managed in a way that promotes
sustainable yield and the development of new species. The
democratic government must assist people to have access to
these resources. Legislative measures must be introduced to
establish democratic structures for the management of sea
resources.

2.10.8Environmental regulation. South Africa has
wide-ranging environmental legislation. However, responsibility for
implementation is scattered over a number of departments
(Agriculture, Water Affairs and Forestry, Health, and Mineral
Resources) from national to local authority level. The Department
of Environmental Affairs administers only a few of the relevant
Acts. This has resulted in discrepancies, anomalies and
ineffectiveness.

2.10.9Fines for environmental offences are inadequate and
inconsistent. The South African legal system makes it difficult
to obtain locus standi in the courts on environmental issues.

2.10.10The democratic government must rationalise environmental
legislation into a cohesive and workable form. It must legislate
the right of access to information on environmentally harmful
practices. It must also require compulsory environmental
impact assessments for all large-scale projects. It must
establish an environmental ombuds and criminalise
environmental offences. It must review and conform with
international conventions and agreements on environmental
issues.

2.10.11Environmental management must be transformed to promote
the active participation of civil society.

2.10.12Both local and provincial governments must play a crucial role
in environmental management. Strong provincial departments
of Environmental Affairs must be established. A national
Department of Environmental Affairs must ensure overall
standards and financing of environmental protection.

2.10.13A Commission on the Environment must be established as an
independent body to ensure transparency and accountability
on the part of agencies dealing with the environment. Such a
body must facilitate the gathering, collation and publication of
data on the environment. It must also provide an interface
between civil society and public agencies responsible for the
environment and natural resources.

2.11 NUTRITION

2.11.1An enormous number of South African children under the age
of 10 years are malnourished and/or stunted. Many thousands
of adults, especially the elderly, are hungry, and millions of
people, young and old, live in constant fear of being hungry.

2.11.2The RDP must ensure that as soon as possible, and certainly
within three years, every person in South Africa can get their
basic nutritional requirement each day and that they no longer
live in fear of going hungry.

2.11.3The most important step toward food security remains the
provision of productive employment opportunities through land
reform, jobs programmes and the reorganisation of the
economy.

2.11.4Short-term interventions should support nutrition education and
the stable, low-cost supply of staple foods combined with
carefully targeted income transfers and food subsidies.

2.11.5The democratic government must ensure that VAT is not
applied to basic foodstuffs, improve social security payments
and reintroduce price controls on standard bread. It must
enhance the efficiency of marketing so that farmers receive
good prices while consumers pay as little as possible. To that
end, the government should curb the powers of marketing
boards and monopolies, and review the effect of tariffs.

2.11.6The democratic government should institute a National
Nutrition Surveillance System, which should aim to weigh a
statistically significant proportion of children under the age of
five years each month to establish their levels of growth and
wellbeing. These simple data will provide measures of food
security in each area, measures which are essential both for
health planning and for targeting relief, for instance during
drought. More widely, South Africa currently lacks an early
warning system which can alert central authorities to threats to
food and water security. The RDP should establish institutions
to collect and monitor nutritional and other key socio-economic
and agricultural data.

2.12 HEALTH CARE

2.12.1The mental, physical and social health of South Africans has
been severely damaged by apartheid policies and their
consequences. The health care and social services that have
developed are grossly inefficient and inadequate. There are, by
international standards, probably enough nurses, doctors and
hospital beds. South Africa spends R550 per capita per annum
on health care. This is nearly 10 times what the World Bank
estimates it should cost to provide basic public health services
and essential clinical care for all, yet millions of our people are
without such services or such care. Health services are
fragmented, inefficient and ineffective, and resources are
grossly mismanaged and poorly distributed. The situation in
rural areas is particularly bad.

2.12.2This section of the RDP draws attention to a number of
programmes designed to restructure the health care services
in South Africa. The aim is to ensure that all South Africans get
infinitely better value for the money spent in this area, and that
their mental, physical and social health improves both for its
own sake and as a major contribution to increasing prosperity
and the quality of life for all.

2.12.3A fundamental objective of the RDP is to raise the standard of
living through improved wages and income-earning
opportunities, and to improve sanitation, water supply, energy
sources, and accommodation. All of this will have a positive
impact on health. Many other policies and programmes affect
health, and their implications should be explored and
considered.

2.12.4All policies affecting health must take into consideration the
fact that South Africa is an integral part of the Southern African
region and has regional responsibilities to prevent and to
combat the spread of disease.

2.12.5National Health System (NHS).

2.12.5.1One of the first priorities is to draw all the different role
players and services into the NHS. This must include
both public and private providers of goods and
services and must be organised at national, provincial,
district and community levels.

2.12.5.2Reconstruction in the health sector will involve the
complete transformation of the entire delivery system.
All relevant legislation, organisations and institutions
must be reviewed in order to redress the harmful
effects of apartheid; encourage and develop delivery
systems and practices that are in line with international
norms and standards; introduce management
practices that promote efficient and compassionate
delivery of services, and ensure respect for human
rights and accountability to users, clients and the public
at large.

2.12.5.3Communities must be encouraged to participate
actively in the planning, managing, delivery, monitoring
and evaluation of the health services in their areas.

2.12.5.4There must be a single Minister of Health and a single
National Health Authority (NHA). The NHA must
develop national policies, standards, norms and
targets, allocate the health budget, coordinate the
recruitment, training, distribution and conditions of
service of health workers, and develop and implement
a National Health Information System.

2.12.5.5Each province must have a Provincial Health Authority
(PHA). This PHA must be responsible for providing
support to all the District Health Authorities (DHAs) in
its province. This must include providing secondary
and tertiary referral hospitals, regulating private
hospitals, running training facilities and programmes,
evaluating and planning services, and any other
support the districts may request. The aim is to
encourage high-quality, efficient services through
decentralised management and local accountability.

2.12.5.6The main bodies responsible for ensuring access to
and the delivery of health services must be the DHAs.
Each DHA must be responsible for the health of
between 200,000 and 750,000 people in a defined
geographical area. About 100 DHAs will, between
them, cover the whole country and their boundaries
must, as far as possible, be the same as the new local
government boundaries. Each DHA will be responsible
for all primary health care services in its district,
including independent general practitioners and
community hospitals. The DHA must have as much
control over its budget as possible, within national and
provincial guidelines.

2.12.5.7In the first phase of the RDP the government must
develop at least one model or pilot health district in
each province. Each DHA must appoint a team, led by
a District Health Manager and linked to a District
Development Committee, to evaluate, plan and
manage health services in the district, including
management of the district health budget. The system
must encourage the training, use and support of
community health workers as cost-effective additional
or alternative personnel.

2.12.5.8The whole NHS must be driven by the Primary Health
Care (PHC) approach. This emphasises community participation and
empowerment, inter-sectoral collaboration and cost-effective care,
as well as integration of preventive, promotive, curative and
rehabilitation services.

2.12.5.9All providers of health services must be
accountable to the local communities they serve through a system of
community committees and through the DHAs which must be part of
democratically elected local government. Other strategies must
include a charter of patients` rights that will be displayed in all
health facilities; a Code of Conduct for health workers; a
programme to promote gender balance in all categories of health
workers; restructuring statutory bodies; support and supervision of
staff at peripheral facilities and inter-sectoral structures at
district, provincial and national levels.

2.12.5.10Once statutory bodies have been rationalised and
restructured to reflect the rich diversity of the South
African people, they should be better able to promote
and protect standards of training and of health care,
and to protect the rights and interests of patients and
clients.

2.12.6Women and children.

2.12.6.1Health care for all children under six years of age, and
for all homeless children, must immediately be
provided free at government clinics and health centres.

2.12.6.2There must be a programme to improve maternal and
child health through access to quality antenatal,
delivery and postnatal services for all women. This
must include better transport facilities and in-service
training programmes for midwives and for traditional
birth attendants. Targets must include 90 per cent of
pregnant women receiving antenatal care and 75 per
cent of deliveries being supervised and carried out
under hygienic conditions within two years. By 1999,
90 per cent of deliveries should be supervised. These
services must be free at government facilities by the
third year of the RDP. In addition, there should be
established the right to six months paid maternity leave
and 10 days paternity leave.

2.12.6.3Preventive and promotive health programmes for
children must be improved. Breast-feeding must be
encouraged and promoted, and the code of ethics on
breast-milk substitutes enforced. A more effective,
expanded programme of immunisation must achieve a
coverage of 90 per cent within three years. Polio and
neonatal tetanus can be eradicated within two years.

2.12.6.4One important aspect of people being able to take
control of their lives is their capacity to control their
own fertility. The government must ensure that
appropriate information and services are available to
enable all people to do this. Reproductive rights must
be guaranteed and reproductive health services must
promote people`s right to privacy and dignity. Every
woman must have the right to choose whether or not
to have an early termination of pregnancy according to
her own individual beliefs. Reproductive rights must
include education, counselling and confidentiality.

2.12.7Mental and psychological health.

2.12.7.1Millions of South Africans abuse alcohol, tobacco,
cannabis (dagga), solvents like petrol and glue, and
other harder drugs. Unless action is taken, substance
abuse is likely to increase enormously. Abuse of these
substances causes immense physical, mental and
social damage and costs the country millions of rands
each year. The RDP must aim to reduce greatly the
present levels of substance abuse and to prevent any
increase. Comprehensive strategies to change
behaviour must include education programmes,
reduction of advertising and increasing the price of
tobacco and alcohol. Strong penalties for major drug
traffickers must be imposed.

2.12.7.2The RDP must aim to promote mental health and
increase the quality, quantity and accessibility of
mental health support and counselling services,
particularly for those affected by domestic or other
violence, by rape or by child abuse.

2.12.7.3The RDP must seek to improve community care,
rehabilitation and education for all disabled people,
particularly the mentally disabled, and must support
their families and care-givers. It must also increase
access to relaxing environments such as recreational
facilities.

2.12.7.4There are deep divisions, fuelled by mutual suspicion
and lack of communication, between traditional and
other complementary healers and medical and social
workers. This is not in the interests of people who use
all types of healers. The RDP must aim to improve
communication, understanding and cooperation
between different types of healers.

2.12.8Sexual health and AIDS. A programme to combat the spread
of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS must
include the active and early treatment of these diseases at all
health facilities, plus mass education programmes which
involve the mass media, schools and community organisations.
The treatment of AIDS sufferers and those testing HIV positive
must be with utmost respect for their continuing contributions
to society. Discrimination will not be tolerated. AIDS education
for rural communities, and especially for women, is a priority.

2.12.9Other health care programmes.

2.12.9.1There must be a programme to ensure the prevention,
early detection and treatment of specific priority
diseases, including tuberculosis, carcinoma of the
cervix, hypertension and diabetes.

2.12.9.2The RDP must ensure improved access to emergency
health services through the provision of more 24-hour
emergency services accessible to communities.
Access to services must be improved by the
development of emergency response centres and
appropriate transport and ambulance services,
especially in rural areas.

2.12.9.3There must be a programme to provide appropriate
care for chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy
lifestyles.

2.12.9.4A unit within the NHS must coordinate and monitor
services aimed at youth, in particular education
campaigns to combat substance abuse, teenage
parenthood and sexually transmitted diseases
amongst the youth.

2.12.9.5Occupational health services must be greatly
expanded and legislation to protect the health of
workers must be enforced. Particular attention must be
given to protecting the health of the most vulnerable,
including domestic, farm and commercial-sex workers.
Workers must have a say in the application of laws,
through their health and safety committees. Workers
should be given check-ups for major diseases in the
workplace. Penalties for violation of occupational
health standards must be stricter. Laws must conform
to International Labour Organisation standards and
other international standards, and unions and state
agencies must be empowered to monitor and enforce
safety and health standards. An overhaul of workmen`s
compensation must include administrative restructuring
to ensure swifter payment, increasing the coverage for
permanently disabled workers to realistic levels,
minimum benefit levels in support of low-wage
workers, greater use of the compensation system to
encourage better workplace health and safety
standards, and a combined board to deal with
preventive and compensatory aspects of worker safety
and health.

2.12.9.6The appropriate use of technology, especially
sophisticated and expensive technology, is very
important. A National Advisory Board on health
technology should be established and should include
representatives from all levels of the NHS. The
Advisory Board must develop appropriate and rational
policies, devise a system of quality control, and advise
on regulations governing the importation and use of
expensive technologies.

2.12.9.7An effective National Health Information System is
essential for rational planning and must be introduced.
This system must ensure that accurate and
comparable data are collected from all parts of the
health system, that data are analysed at health-facility,
district, provincial and national levels, and that those
collecting the data see it as a useful and interesting
activity. Mechanisms must be established for sharing
information between different programmes and
sectors.

2.12.9.8A programme of Essential National Health Research
must be initiated. This should increase consultation
with patients, and should help to overcome the
isolation and fragmentation of research efforts and to
strengthen links between research, policy and action.
Special attention must be directed to health systems
research in order to improve the effectiveness of
health service delivery.

2.12.10Human resources for the NHS.

2.12.10.1Core teams must be provided for every Community
Health Centre and clinic. This will require incentives to
attract staff to underserviced (especially rural) areas
and increased training of Community Health Workers
and Environmental Health Officers.

2.12.10.2There must be a programme of retraining and
reorienting all existing health workers to the Primary
Health Care approach. The aim is to train 25 per cent
of district health personnel by the end of 1995, and 50
per cent by the end of 1997.

2.12.10.3Redistribution of personnel will be achieved through
more appropriate training, through incentives to work in
underserviced areas, through limiting openings for
private practice in overserviced areas, and through
contractual obligations for those receiving subsidised
training.

2.12.10.4Throughout the period of reconstruction and
development strenuous efforts must be made to
strengthen the public sector, to attract health workers
in private practice back into the public sector, at least
on a sessional basis, and to encourage active
cooperation between the sectors with the common
goal of improving the health of the nation.

2.12.10.5One of the most important parts of the RDP in the
health sector will be the complete transformation of
health worker training. This must involve improving
human resource planning and management systems;
reviewing all training programmes; reviewing selection
procedures, and developing new (and often short)
training programmes to reorient existing personnel and
to train new categories and auxiliary workers.

2.12.10.6There is a particular need to train existing and new
staff in the PHC approach, in management, in primary
clinical care, in environmental health, in health
promotion and advocacy, in occupational health and in
the maintenance and repair of equipment.

2.12.11Finance and drugs for the NHS.

2.12.11.1The RDP must significantly shift the budget allocation
from curative hospital services towards Primary Health
Care to address the needs of the majority of the
people. This must be done mainly by reallocating staff
and budgets to district health services.

2.12.11.2Within a period of five years a whole range of services
must be available free to the aged, the disabled, the
unemployed and to students who cannot afford health
care.

2.12.11.3Essential drugs must be provided in all PHC facilities.
An essential drugs list must be established to reduce
the current wasteful expenditure on inappropriate
drugs.

2.12.11.4The costs of medication in the private sector can be
dramatically reduced through greater use of essential
drug lists coupled with a single, nationally negotiated
and well-publicised price for a given quantity of each
drug.

2.13 SOCIAL SECURITY AND SOCIAL WELFARE

2.13.1Apartheid contributed to the destruction of family and
community life in various ways. The present racially-based,
discriminatory social welfare services are piecemeal
responses. They have little impact on the root causes of social
problems and on the disintegration of the social fabric.

2.13.2The RDP aims to transform the existing social welfare policies,
programmes and delivery systems so as to ensure basic
welfare rights are provided to all South Africans, prioritising
those who have been historically disadvantaged.

2.13.3Social welfare as a focus on basic needs and
development. Social welfare includes the right to basic needs
such as shelter, food, health care, work opportunities, income
security and all those aspects that promote the physical, social
and emotional wellbeing of all people in our society, with
special provision made for those who are unable to provide for
themselves because of specific problems.

2.13.4The goals of a developmental social welfare programme are:

2.13.4.1the attainment of basic social welfare rights for all
South Africans, irrespective of race, colour, religion,
gender and physical disability, through the
establishment of a democratically-determined, just and
effective social delivery system;

2.13.4.2the redressing of past imbalances through a deliberate
process of affirmative action in respect of those who
have been historically disadvantaged, especially
women, children, youth, the disabled, people in rural
communities and informal settlements;

2.13.4.3the empowerment of individuals, families and
communities to participate in the process of deciding
on the range of needs and problems to be addressed
through local, provincial and national initiatives, and

2.13.4.4the recognition of the role of organs of civil
society in the welfare system, such as community-based
rehabilitation centres and organisations, non-governmental
development organisations, civic associations, the private sector,
religious organisations, traditional and other complementary
healers, trade unions and individual initiatives, and the
establishment of guidelines for mutual cooperation.

2.13.5A comprehensive, non-racial, unitary and democratic welfare
system, including a negotiated national social security
programme, must be introduced to aid the distribution of goods
and services within the framework of public responsibility.

2.13.6The policy and legislative framework. There must be a
comprehensive review of all the policies and legislation
regulating social welfare and social security. In particular the
National Welfare Act of 1978, the Social Work Act of 1978,
and Acts dealing with child and family welfare must be
changed. New umbrella legislation which provides the
framework for a development-oriented social welfare system
based on the principles of equality, equity, access, user
involvement and empowerment, and public accountability must
be developed.

2.13.7The national social welfare delivery system.

2.13.7.1The RDP must ensure the greatest coverage in terms
of benefits to the poorest through a restructured,
integrated social welfare delivery system at national,
provincial and local government levels. Unnecessary
bureaucratic procedures must be removed.

2.13.7.2All the key players at local, provincial and national
levels responsible for the administration and service-delivery
aspects of social welfare must be brought together to find ways of
overcoming the difficulties in the present social welfare
structure.

2.13.7.3The restructuring of the social welfare system and
services at national, provincial, district and local
community levels must be in line with international
norms and standards.

2.13.7.4The planning, coordination and evaluation of social
services must take place with community and inter-sectoral involvement.

2.13.8A national Social Welfare and Development Department.

2.13.8.1The national department must be responsible for the
development of national policies, standards and
norms, setting of priorities and targets, drawing up of
the national budget on social welfare and allocating
resources and grants to targeted areas.

2.13.8.2The development of service conditions and
professional standards to guide the training, education
and employment of social service personnel must be
the responsibility of the national department.

2.13.8.3The national department must be responsible for the
monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of
social welfare goals and priorities.

2.13.9Provincial social welfare and development
departments.

2.13.9.1Each province must have a social welfare and
development department. Such departments must be
responsible for the planning, coordination, regulation,
provision and evaluation of social welfare and
community development services required at provincial
and district levels.

2.13.9.2Provincial departments must be responsible for social
services at preventive (primary) and curative (secondary) levels.
The management and distribution of social services at provincial,
district and community levels must fall within the provincial
department`s authority.

2.13.10Social security. The national social security
system must be designed to meet the needs of workers in both formal
and informal sectors, and of the unemployed, through:

2.13.10.1social insurance which includes compulsory private
contributory pension schemes or provident funds for all
workers, and state social pensions;

2.13.10.2linking contributory pension/provident funds and
non-contributory schemes, as well as the transfer of contributory
pensions, and

2.10.3criteria which entitle workers to retire between the
ages of 60 and 65, or to a social pension at 60.

2.13.11Social safety net. Social assistance in the form
of cash or in-kind benefits should be given to those most at risk
(such social assistance could take the form of work opportunities
in public works programmes; the provision of food, clothing and
health care to those in need; cash in the form of disability
grants, foster care grants, maintenance grants, or grants for
veterans according to predetermined criteria).

2.13.12The RDP aims to establish a national coordinating
body with representation of workers, community members, the social
welfare sector, the private sector, government and other
appropriate organisations to review existing legislation, policies
and procedures and to monitor the implementation of a transformed
social security system.

2.13.13Social security measures must initially focus on the
needs of those who have been historically disadvantaged, such as
domestic workers, agricultural workers, seasonal workers, workers
who are disabled, women, the homeless, and families in rural and
informal settlements.

2.13.14Social welfare rights and the distribution of benefits
must be guided by the principles of user empowerment and
participation through community- and worker-based citizens-rights
education programmes.

2.13.15The RDP must focus on the reconstruction of family and
community life by prioritising and responding to the needs of
families with no income, women and children who have been victims
of domestic and other forms of violence, young offenders and all
those affected by substance abuse.

2.13.16A comprehensive range of social service programmes must
be developed in partnership with community-based structures to
respond to the specific needs of the elderly and those in chronic
emotional distress. Community-based and community-planned
rehabilitation programmes must be encouraged to meet the needs of
the disabled, and the democratic government must make adequate
resources available for rehabilitation.

2.13.17Children. The rights of children must be protected and
measures must be taken to ensure that community-based and
workplace care centres are provided for children in need of
alternate care. The RDP must ensure that immediate steps are
taken to remove all children from prisons and police cells.
Alternate detention centres with proper health facilities,
counselling and other support services must be provided for
children. Special programmes protecting homeless children,
especially those on the streets, must be put into place.

2.13.18Human resources for the Social Welfare and
Development Department. The existing pool of social service
workers and their conditions of service must be reviewed. The
present number of social workers (approximately 7,500) is
inadequate, and their training is often inappropriate. Many social
workers must be reoriented and retrained within a developmental
approach to social welfare. The national, provincial and local
social welfare departments must have both specialised and generic
social service personnel at management, middle-management and
operational levels. The curricula of social welfare and community
development educational institutions must be reviewed. Within a
five-year period a minimum of another 3,000 community development
workers must be trained to work within provincial and local
government structures to aid the process of prioritisation of
community needs and allocation of resources. Social service
managers must be trained with due regard to the need for
affirmative action.

2.13.19Inter-sectoral coordination. Inter-sectoral
units on areas such as mental health, child care, women, and
juvenile justice must be developed to plan and implement integrated
strategies aimed at improving services to these target groups. In
addition, the relationship between social welfare, health,
community development and labour institutions and related sectors
must be improved.

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