< Back

3. Developing Our Human Resources

3.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

3.1.1Education and training under apartheid is characterised by
three key features. First, the system is fragmented along racial
and ethnic lines, and is saturated with the racist and sexist
ideology and educational doctrines of apartheid. Second, there
is a lack of access or unequal access to education and training
at all levels of the system. Vast disparities exist between black
and white provision, and large numbers of people - in
particular, adults (and more especially women), out-of-school
youth, and children of pre-school age - have little or no access
to education and training. Third, there is a lack of democratic
control within the education and training system. Students,
teachers, parents and workers are excluded from decision-making processes.

3.1.2The fragmented, unequal and undemocratic nature of the
education and training system has profound effects on the
development of the economy and society. It results in the
destruction, distortion or neglect of the human potential of our
country, with devastating consequences for social and
economic development. This is evident in the lack of career
paths offered to workers and in the effect this has on worker
motivation and the general productivity of the economy. And
more importantly, apartheid education and its aftermath of
resistance destroyed the culture of learning in large sections of
our communities, leading, in the worst-affected areas, to a
virtual breakdown of schooling and conditions of anarchy in
relations between students, teachers, principals, and the
education authorities.

3.1.3Under colonialism and apartheid, the culture of the majority of
the population was suppressed. People and communities were
denied resources and facilities to develop their own cultural
expression. High illiteracy rates, the lack of an effective
educational system, and extreme poverty compounded this
cultural deprivation. The state, special interest groups and
wealthy South Africans promoted distorted culture in order to
accommodate apartheid ideology and needs, with a bias
toward Eurocentric high art.

3.1.4Women and the youth bear the brunt of these injustices, with
the consequence that special attention must be given to these
sectors of society in the planning and implementation of human
resources development policies and strategies. Many of the
youth are presently outside the socio-economic mainstream of
the country.

3.1.5The challenge that we face at the dawning of a democratic
society is to create an education and training system that
ensures people are able to realise their full potential in our
society, as a basis and a prerequisite for the successful
achievement of all other goals in this Reconstruction and
Development Programme.

3.2 VISION AND OBJECTIVES

3.2.1Human resources, unlike other resources, think for
themselves! People are, and must remain, the architects of the
RDP as it unfolds in the years to come. The provision of
opportunities for people to develop themselves in order to
improve the quality of their own lives and the standard of living
of their communities is a central objective of the RDP,
alongside ensuring that basic needs are met, the society is
democratised and the economy grows.

3.2.2The opportunities that must be provided include a massive
expansion and qualitative improvement in the education and
training system, artistic and cultural expression, and sport and
recreation.

3.2.3Human resource development must address the development
of human capabilities, abilities, knowledge and knowhow to
meet the people's ever-growing needs for goods and services,
to improve their standard of living and quality of life. It is a
process in which the citizens of a nation acquire and develop
the knowledge and skill necessary for occupational tasks and
for other social, cultural, intellectual, and political roles that are
part and parcel of a vibrant democratic society.

3.3 EDUCATION AND TRAINING

3.3.1We must develop an integrated system of education and
training that provides equal opportunities to all irrespective of
race, colour, sex, class, language, age, religion, geographical
location, political or other opinion. It must address the
development of knowledge and skills that can be used to
produce high-quality goods and services in such a way as to
enable us to develop our cultures, our society and our
economy.

3.3.2Education must be directed to the full development of the
individual and community, and to strengthening respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms. It must promote
understanding, tolerance, and friendship among all South
Africans and must advance the principles contained in the Bill
of Rights.

3.3.3A new national human resources development strategy
must be based on the principles of democracy, non-racism,
non-sexism, equity and redress to avoid the pitfalls of the past.

3.3.4The democratic government has the ultimate responsibility for
ensuring that our human resources are developed to the full.
Education, training and development opportunities must be
provided in accordance with national standards. However, civil
society must be encouraged to play an active part in the
provision of learning opportunities as part of the national
human resources development strategy. For example,
democratic school governance structures must be set up which
involve democratically elected parent and teacher
representatives, as well as providing for student participation at
a consultative level.

3.3.5Mechanisms, institutions and legislation. Success in
rebuilding and expanding education and training depends on
having an effective and responsive organisation to manage
change. The education and training bureaucracy must be
reorganised at national, sectoral and provincial levels through
the establishment of:

3.3.5.1a single national ministry responsible for education and
training, to set national policies, norms and standards
throughout the system, to undertake planning and
provide budgetary resources for all aspects of
education and training, and to manage higher
education and training development;

3.3.5.2provincial departments responsible for education and
training, to plan and manage all aspects of education
and training provision other than higher education;

3.3.5.3statutory bodies, based on appropriate democratic
representation of stakeholders, to establish standards
and advise the national ministry and provincial
departments on policy and development programmes
in education and training;

3.3.5.4industry-based education and training boards with
union and employer participation, to design and
implement programmes within industries (with such
boards partly financed by industry), consisten with the
standards developed for the integrated national
framework;

3.3.5.5structures of institutional governance which reflect the
interests of all stakeholders and the broader
community served by the institution, and

3.3.5.6a statutory South African Qualifications Authority with
responsibility for accreditation, certification and the
maintenance of national standards.

3.3.6Girls and women in education and training. Girls
and women are frequently denied education and training
opportunities because they are female. Furthermore, girls and women
are educated and trained to fulfil traditional roles which
perpetuate their oppression. Within all education and training
programmes special attention must be given to the special interests
of girls and women. For example, adult basic education and training
programmes should give special emphasis to women trapped in the
rural areas. Campaigns and information should also open up a wider
range of learning opportunities and choices for women, which in
turn should lead to a wider range of income-generating forms of
employment. Girls and women should be encouraged to pursue
non-traditional subjects such as maths and science, for example.
However, in addition to these measures, special steps must be taken
to give full recognition and value to the work and skills that are
traditionally associated with women. Where appropriate these should
be recognised within the national qualifications framework.

3.3.7An integrated qualifications framework. By
establishing a national qualifications framework which integrates
all elements of the education and training system, we must enable
learners to progress to higher levels from any starting point. They
must be able to obtain recognition and credits for qualifications
and credits towards qualifications from one part of the system to
another. The system must enable assessment and recognition of prior
learning and skills acquired through experience. To this end,
curricula should cut across traditional divisions of skills and
knowledge.

3.3.8Early childhood educare. Educare, which introduces an
educational component into child care, must be an integral part
of a future education and training system. The provision of
educare for young children is an important step toward lifetime
learning and the emancipation of women. We must expand
early childhood educare by supporting an increase in private
and public funding; institutionalising it within the ministry and
the provincial departments, and raising national awareness of
the importance of such programmes. The democratic
government also bears the ultimate responsibility for training,
upgrading and setting national standards for educare
providers, with the assistance of civil society.

3.3.9Adult basic education and training.

3.3.9.1Adult Basic Education (ABE) aims to provide adults
with education and training programmes equivalent to
exit level in the formal school system, with an
emphasis on literacy and numeracy skills. This
represents a crucial step in the reconstruction and
development of our society. Special provision must be
made for ABE within the future national ministry and
government departments at all levels. ABE must
conform to standards set out within the national
qualifications.

3.3.9.2The provision of ABE must be expanded by building a
partnership of all employer, labour, local and provincial
government, community and funding agencies. This
will establish a process to provide funding support to a
national ABE programme, managed at provincial,
sectoral, local, community and workplace levels, and
where possible using existing educational and training
facilities when these are unutilised or underutilised,
such as at night, over weekends and during holidays.

3.3.9.3ABE must be centrally included in all reconstruction
projects, and particularly programmes for the
unemployed. Micro enterprises must also be given
assistance with respect to ABE. Such provision should
assist learners to seek related employment on
completion of the specific project.

3.3.10Special education. Under minority rule and apartheid, the
learning needs of children and adults with physical or other
disabilities and impairments suffered massive neglect. The
RDP must redress this situation by establishing appropriate
institutional structures and inter-sectoral groups, mounting a
national advocacy campaign to raise awareness of the issue,
ensuring that existing facilities are optimally used, and
developing new programmes as needed. The education and
training needs of the disabled and other marginalised groups
should be catered for as part of a process of facilitating access
to facilities and to the economy, so that disadvantaged groups
are seen as an asset - by themselves and by society at large.

3.3.11Compulsory school education.

3.3.11.1The democratic government must restructure the
education and training systems to meet the needs of all. We must
foster community participation and a culture of teaching and
learning. We must develop a national qualifications system that
should recognise learners' skills, experience and studies, allowing
them to gain access to different kinds of education and training
throughout their lives, and letting people re-enter education and
training easily.

3.3.11.2The democratic government must enable all children
to go to school for at least 10 years. The 10-year
compulsory general education cycle should proceed
from a pre-school reception year to the present
Standard 7. The government must phase in
compulsory education as soon as possible. To achieve
this objective we must rebuild and expand our schools.
Classes of 50-80 or more students are unacceptable.
We must ensure that no class exceeds 40 students by
the end of the decade.

3.3.11.3In addition, we must align the structure, curricula and
certification with the new national qualifications
system.

3.3.11.4Education from the present Standard 8 up to the
present Standard 10 must be redesigned and
incorporated into an integrated post-compulsory phase
of learning, coordinated at national level and resulting
in a Further Education Certificate (or National Higher
Certificate). This will integrate post-compulsory
schooling with training and should replace the matric
with a Further Education Certificate or National Higher
Certificate.

3.3.11.5The new programmes, curricula and teaching
approaches for the first four years of school must take
into account the language, learning and developmental
needs of young children.

3.3.11.6The need for school buildings must be addressed by
vastly improved use of existing facilities and a school-building
programme. To this end all schools and existing facilities are to
be used to full capacity by the start of 1995 for both compulsory
and non-compulsory learning, and schools must be built in
sufficient numbers to meet the real demand. We must empower school
communities to take responsibility for the care and protection of
their schools.

3.3.11.7Farm schools and community schools must be
progressively integrated into the ordinary school
system, and additional schools must be provided in
commercial farming areas.

3.3.11.8The existing curriculum bears the mark of racism,
sexism, authoritarianism and outmoded teaching
practices. Transformation is essential. Curriculum
change takes time, but we must find points of entry to
permit reconstruction to start in 1994. Major
stakeholders must reach agreement through the
National Education and Training Forum on the
management of curriculum and examinations in the
transition period. We must establish institutes for
curriculum development at national and provincial
levels.

3.3.11.9Black education, in particular, suffered severe deficits
in the areas of science, mathematics, technology, arts
and culture. Curriculum development must therefore
pay special attention to these areas.

3.3.12Further education and training.

3.3.12.1Further education and training is the term used in this
document to refer to those education and training
experiences which follow compulsory general
education or its equivalent and culminate in the
National Higher Certificate.

3.3.12.2Further education must provide schooling, training and
adult education as an integrated system. A balanced
and flexible curriculum leading to the National Higher
Certificate must be developed for all learners in a
variety of learning contexts: students learning within
formal institutions, workers in industry, out-of-school
youth, and adults learning in community learning
centres. The curriculum must seek to open learning
paths consistent with the goals of lifelong learning.

3.3.13 Higher education.

3.3.13.1The higher education system represents a major
resource for national development and contributes to
the world-wide advance of knowledge. But its present
structure and capacity are seriously distorted by the
apartheid inheritance, its governance systems are
outmoded, and its funding arrangements have led to
serious crises for both the students and the institutions
themselves.

3.3.13.2In order to address these structural problems with the
seriousness they deserve, the new democratic
government will consult all significant stakeholders with
a view to appointing a representative and expert higher
education commission to investigate and report
urgently on the role of the higher education sector in
national reconstruction and development; the structure
of the system; access/selection and exclusion; the role
of open learning and distance education; institutional
governance and the governance of the system as a
whole; capacity-building and affirmative action in
academic and administrative appointments; the
resource base for higher education, and the system of
student finance.

3.3.14 Teachers, educators and trainers.

3.3.14.1The reconstruction of education and training requires a
body of teachers, educators and trainers committed to
RDP goals and competent in carrying them out. This
requires that they are able to understand and respond
flexibly to the challenges of the new approaches to
curriculum, method, delivery and certification which an
integrated system of education and training demands.
They must dedicate themselves to enhancing the
quality of learning and achievement throughout the
system. Teachers, educators and trainers who are
inadequately educated, badly treated by their
employers, and poorly rewarded cannot be expected
to fulfil these expectations.

3.3.14.2For adult basic education and training, the problems
faced are those of insufficient and poor-quality training
opportunities for facilitators, non-existent qualifications
and career paths, and very low status. For school
teachers, problems range from poor initial training, to
insufficient support services and low wages and poor
conditions. The reconstruction of education and
training requires an overhaul of
teacher/educator/trainer training and the industrial
relations system in line with other sectors.

3.3.14.3Statutory national and provincial teacher, educator and
trainer development centres should be established to
review all relevant education and training curriculum
and support services. They must take special
measures to increase the supply and competence of
maths, science and art teachers for schools, and
educators/trainers for the non-compulsory learning
sectors.

3.3.14.4A transparent, participatory and equitable process to
review salaries and conditions of service will be
established. It will guarantee a living wage to the
worst-paid teachers. It will also establish appropriate
career paths, introduce criteria for the recognition and
grading of teachers and trainers, and promote
professional development within the proposed national
qualifications framework.

3.3.15Restructuring training within an integrated education and
training system.

3.3.15.1The RDP proposes a substantially restructured and
expanded training system, integrated with Adult Basic
Education, post-Standard 7 formal schooling and
higher education.

3.3.15.2The national qualifications framework must be the
mechanism by means of which this integration is given
effect.

3.3.15.3The national ministry and provincial departments of
education and training must consult with the
restructured bodies of civil society on policy issues.

3.3.15.4Education and training for skills development must be
modular and outcome-based; must recognise prior
learning and experience; must develop transferable
and portable skills; must have common standards, and
must be integrated within the national qualifications
and accreditation system. Training programmes and
schooling after Standard 7 should form part of an
integrated system. Training for self-employment is
essential and must be offered.

3.4 ARTS AND CULTURE

3.4.1Arts and culture embrace custom, tradition, belief, religion,
language, crafts, and all the artforms like music, dance, the
visual arts, film, theatre, written and oral literature. Arts and
culture permeate all aspects of society and are integral parts of
social and economic life, as well as business and industry
based upon the arts.

3.4.2Under colonialism and apartheid the culture of the majority of
South Africans was neglected, distorted and suppressed.
Freedom of expression and creativity were stifled. People and
communities were denied access to resources and facilities to
exercise and develop their need for cultural and artistic
expression. Illiteracy, the lack of an effective educational
system, and extreme poverty compounded this cultural
deprivation.

3.4.3The RDP arts and culture policies aim to:

3.4.3.1affirm and promote the rich and diverse expression of
South African culture - all people must be guaranteed
the right to practise their culture, language, beliefs and
customs, as well as enjoy freedom of expression and
creativity free from interference;

3.4.3.2promote the development of a unifying national culture,
representing the aspirations of all South Africa's
people (this cannot be imposed, but requires educating
people in principles of non-racialism, non-sexism,
human rights and democracy);

3.4.3.3ensure that resources and facilities for both the
production and the appreciation of arts and culture are
made available and accessible to all (priority must be
given to those people and communities previously
denied access to these resources);

3.4.3.4conserve, promote and revitalise our national cultural
heritage so it is accessible to all communities
(historical and cultural collections, resources and sites
must fully reflect the many components of our cultural
heritage and, in particular, neglected and suppressed
aspects of our people's culture must be conserved);

3.4.3.5place arts education firmly within the national
educational curricula, as well as in non-formal
educational structures;

3.4.3.6link culture firmly to areas of national priority such as
health, housing, tourism, etc., to ensure that culture is
entrenched as a fundamental component of
development;

3.4.3.7establish and implement a language policy that
encourages and supports, financially and otherwise,
the utilisation of all the languages of South Africa, and

3.4.3.8cooperate with educational bodies and the media in
eradicating illiteracy, and in promoting a reading and
learning culture.

3.4.4A Ministry of Arts and Culture must be established to
implement these objectives.

3.4.5Existing publicly funded and parastatal cultural and arts
structures, such as the Performing Arts Councils, the National
Gallery, museums, libraries, archives and monuments, must be
democratised. Commissions to investigate the organisation,
funding, policies and future roles of such structures must be
established as a matter of urgency. These commissions should
report within six months of their appointment, and complete the
tasks of transformation within two years.

3.4.6Ultimately government is responsible for the provision of
cultural amenities for each community. As an immediate
measure, established community art centres should be
subsidised by government. In the longer term, the Ministry of
Arts and Culture should work with local and regional
government and community structures to form community art
centres throughout the country.

3.4.7With local and provincial government, the Ministry should
establish libraries, museums, galleries, monuments and
historical sites. These should reflect the many different strands
of South African culture. Each community should have these
facilities located within reach.

3.4.8Arts education should be an integral part of the
national school curricula at primary, secondary and tertiary level,
as well as in non-formal education. Urgent attention must be given
to the creation of relevant arts curricula, teacher training, and
provision of facilities for the arts within all schools.

3.4.9Nationally and within each region, democratic Arts
Councils will be established as statutory bodies. Allocations to
such bodies will be made by the government, operating within its
policy framework. Principles along which government funding will be
disbursed must include redressing imbalances of the past,
transformation and development, non-racialism, non-sexism, human
rights and democracy.

3.4.10The Pan-South African Language Institute proposed in the
Interim Constitution must be constituted as a matter of
urgency, to devise programmes and seek resources to
develop all South African languages and particularly the
historically neglected indigenous languages.

3.4.11The government will encourage and facilitate cultural
exchange between the people of South Africa and the rest of the
world. This exchange will be informed by the views of cultural
workers and associations and will be aimed at promoting local
developmental programmes and international understanding.

3.4.12A statutory national body should be created to
encourage the development of a healthy, vibrant and diverse local
South African film and audio-visual industry, reflecting the
realities of all the people of South Africa. This body should work
to give the majority of South African viewers and audio-visual
practitioners access to audio-visual communications.

3.4.13Legislation hindering the development of the arts
(for example, censorship laws) must be repealed. Legislation should
be adopted based on principles of transformation, reconstruction
and development, and in line with international conventions on the
arts, labour legislation protecting cultural workers, and copyright
laws.

3.4.14We must develop human resources to fulfil these
objectives, in part through employing additional civil servants on
a contract or permanent basis, as well as through retraining
existing personnel.

3.4.15The Ministry of Arts and Culture must have its own
budget. Funding for arts and culture will also be obtained through
encouraging partnerships between government, business,
non-governmental organisations, communities, and the international
community. Within this framework, the national budget will carry an
allocation specifically for culture. The framework will make
provision for tax incentives and rebates to encourage investment in
arts and culture.

3.5 SPORT AND RECREATION

3.5.1One of the cruellest legacies of apartheid is its distortion of
sport and recreation in our society, the enforced segregation of
these activities and the gross neglect in providing facilities for
the majority of South Africa's people. This has denied millions
of people and particularly our youth the right to a normal and
healthy life.

3.5.2It is important to ensure that sporting and
recreational facilities are available to all South African
communities. Participation in sporting and recreational activities
should reflect the country's demographics. The removal of obstacles
that preclude specific sections of the community from participation
is crucial. This cannot be left entirely in the hands of individual
sporting codes or local communities, both of whom require support
and encouragement.

3.5.3Sport and recreation are an integral part of
reconstructing and developing a healthier society. Sport and
recreation should cut across all developmental programmes, and be
accessible and affordable for all South Africans, including those
in rural areas, the young and the elderly. The RDP must facilitate
the mobilising of resources in both the public and private sectors
to redress inequalities and enhance this vital aspect of our
society.

3.5.4Particular attention must be paid to the provision of
facilities at schools and in communities where there are large
concentrations of unemployed youth. Sport and recreation are an
integral and important part of education and youth programmes. In
developing such programmes it should be recognised that sport is
played at different levels of competence and that there are
different specific needs at different levels.

3.5.5The new democratic government must work with the National
Sports Commission in developing and implementing a sports
policy. This should include issues such as the establishment of
an independent national sports controlling agency for the
control of drugs in sport, as well as a national sports academy
to undertake and coordinate training programmes concerning
coaching, refereeing, umpiring and sports management.

3.6 YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

3.6.1The high levels of youth unemployment require special
programmes. A national youth service programme is already
giving young people structured work experience while
continuing their education and training. The programme should
not just be seen as a job creation measure, however, but as
youth development and capacity building. Care must be taken
to ensure that the programme does not displace or substitute
workers in permanent employment.

3.6.2Youth development more generally must focus on education
and training, job creation, and enabling young people to realise
their full potential and participate fully in the society and their
future. It must restore the hope of our youth in the future, and
in their capacity to channel their resourcefulness and energy
into reconstruction and development.

3.6.3The national youth service programme must better educate,
develop, train and empower youth, and enable them to
participate in the reconstruction of society through involvement
in service projects in the community such as literacy, welfare,
and improving infrastructure. All development and job creation
programmes such as a national public works programme must
address the problem of youth alienation and unemployment.

3.6.4A national institution must coordinate the programme in
consultation with other sectors. Areas in which the youth
service programme could contribute include educare and
literacy programmes, health, environmental protection, rural
and urban infrastructure development, and peace monitoring.
The programme must also be used to enhance awareness of
the relationships between productivity, the economy and the
role of science and technology in achieving the objectives of
the RDP. Finally, the youth service programme must also build
a spirit of national unity and reconciliation amongst the youth,
as well as a sense of service towards the community and the
nation.

3.6.5Appropriate government departments must more forcefully
represent youth interests, including through the allocation of
resources to organisations involved in youth work. An
autonomous National Youth Council should be given support in
coordinating youth activities, lobbying for the rights of young
people, and representing South Africa internationally. A review
of legislation affecting youth and the implementation of youth
service programmes must also be carried out.

3.6.6The democratic government must support the International
Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the supporting Plan
of Action. It must work to protect the lives of children, to
promote the full development of their human potential, and to
make them aware of their needs, rights and opportunities. The
needs of children must be paramount throughout all
programmes aimed at meeting basic needs and socio-economic upliftment.