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Investing in our country`s future: Policy framework for Youth Development

21 August 1998

Table of Contents

Chapter one Youth Policy - A framework for intervention.
Chapter Two Situational analysis of the South African Youth
Chapter Three Youth and the Economy
Chapter Four Youth and Human Resource Development
Chapter Five Health and Welfare
Chapter Six The Criminal Justice System
Chapter Seven Environment
Chapter Eight Peace and Security
Chapter Nine International Relations
Chapter Ten Institutional and Organizational Mechanism
Chapter Eleven Finance and Budgeting

CHAPTER ONE : Youth Policy - A framework for Intervention

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 The general election of 1994 marked a significant step in the building of a new nation in South Africa. It marked a beginning of a process of democratization of the South African society. This process was further entrenched with the Local Government elections. The task that lies ahead of us is how we use the political power to combat impoverishment and improve living standards of our people.

1.1.2 The African National Congress, the Alliance Partners and the Mass Democratic Movement developed a Reconstruction and Development Programme which translates the aspirations of the majority of our people into a coherent and a holistic programme, which is people driven and that defines a development path which our country should follow to meet the aspiration of the masses of our people. The Reconstruction and a Development Programme (RDP) has since been adopted by the Government of National Unity led by the African National Congress .A number of documents have since been produced by various Government Departments which implements the RDP in specific areas in which these departments operate. This affirms the commitment of the Government to realize the objectives of the RDP. The Government has further developed a Macro - Economic Strategy, Growth, Employment and Redistribution, which outlines a government plan to realize the objectives of RDP.

1.1.3 In mapping out a development path for the country it is important that the Government places special emphasis on the youth. Young people have played a crucial role in the struggle for freedom in South Africa. They have been forced by the brutality of Apartheid regime to take matured decisions in early stages of their development. They made heroic sacrifices for a development of a new nation. The energy and commitment they have shown in the struggle against the Apartheid regime reflects the potential that young people have when making crucial decisions about their lives. The peculiarity of the youth in Africa lay in the high level of political consciousness, which arose as a result of colonial social relations.

1.2 The need for Youth Policy

1.2.1 Young people are a significant group in any society. They posses an invaluable potential which is of major importance for the Government to invest in, for a developed future generation. The Government need to give young people every opportunity to maximize their full potential to become partners in their country`s development process and to enable them to establish a solid foundation as future leaders of their nation.

1.2.2 The Youth policy is not only of historical significance; it must reflect the importance of youth in the national development agenda. It must represent a basis and a framework for youth development within our country, a starting point for all groups seeking to be relevant to the needs and aspiration of young people.

1.2.3 A Youth Policy must: -

Provide a framework for youth development incorporating a set of realistic guidelines from which strategies and initiatives can be developed to facilitate a meaningful youth participation in the development our country.

Provide Government with effective means for declaring to the nation the importance of youth in national development.

Act as a an indication of the nation’s commitment to youth development

Provide a rallying point, a means of challenge and appeal to the youth generation to mobilize their resources and participate effectively in national development.

Appeal to all citizens to give priority attention to youth concern and generate and encourage a spirit of co-operation between young and old.

Must outline the distinctive and complementary role of government, NGO’s, role players like youth groups and other stakeholders, identify common goals and develop co-operation and co-ordination.

1.3 Our vision

1.3.1 The ANC sets it`s strategic Objective as the transformation of our country into a united, democratic non racial, non-sexist and a prosperous country [ANC Strategy and Tactics document, 1997]

1.3.2 At the heart of achieving these noble goals, it is imperative youth interest should be put at centre of a development agenda. The government will have to develop and implement a youth development policy. Youth policy must be viewed in a context of the Reconstruction and Development Programme, which hopes to achieve sustainable development without compromising the interests of future generations.

1.3.3 The youth policy will therefore reinforce the above stated objectives and assist in addressing the basic needs of young people, and strengthen political democracy in a new South Africa. Reconstruction and Development of our country needs to be pursued rigorously and with a sense of urgency as they are the major thrust for building peace and reconciliation, a united nation, and most importantly bridge the gap that has been created by apartheid policies amongst young people.

1.4 Our Mission.

The Youth policy will seek to mobilize majority of young people behind our vision of transformation of our society and to ensure a National Youth Development Programme rooted in the overall vision, mission and principles of the Reconstruction and Development Programme which should aim to: -

  • Reverse the effects of Apartheid on the present generation of youth.
  • Ensure the implementation of policies aimed at the new generation of youth and children which will prevent youth alienation ; and
  • Integrate youth into family, community life and national development planning.
  • Empower young people to make meaningful contribution in the development of our country.
  • Prepare young people to fulfill their role as future leaders in all spheres of society and their communities.

1.5 National goals

The national goals of the Youth Policy are: -

  • Reduce youth unemployment by providing opportunities for them to become involved in meaningful economic activities and be integrated into an overall economic strategy.
  • Provide another opportunity for youth that have missed out in education and training and as well ensuring access to education to all youth in a system of life long learning.
  • Provide more equitable access to health, recreational and social service.
  • Set in place a juvenile system aimed at rehabilitating young offenders, within the context of reduction of crime levels and community policing.
  • Create conditions which will develop self-esteem and responsibility amongst young people and empower them to play a meaningful role in a society.
  • Improve the quality of life of all young people.

1.6 Principles

The principles of a youth policy will be consistent with the principles of the Reconstruction and Development Programme. Our Youth Policy will be based on the following principles:-

Integrated and sustainable policy. Reversing the effects of Apartheid requires a policy, which will coordinate and sustained over a period. The youth policy will provide a framework incorporating a set realistic guidelines and strategies which are achievable, sustainable and can be measured. The youth policy will bring together strategies to harness our resources in a coherent and purposeful effort that can be sustained in the future. These strategies will be implemented at a National, Provincial and local levels of government, Parastatals and organisations within civil society working within the framework of the youth policy and RDP.

Youth - centered and youth driven process. The collective will, aspirations and determination of young people are our most important resource. The youth policy must focus on the most immediate needs of the young people and in turn must rely on their energies to drive the process of meeting these needs. Regardless of race, colour, sex, whether rich or poor, urban or rural, the young people must together shape their own future. Youth development must be a process, which encourage young people to be active and be empowered in their own development.

Peace and security for all. Young people had been adversely affected by Apartheid Violence. This has broken the social fabric and co-operation of in our communities, between young and old. The result of ongoing spiral of violence has led to a number of young people and children being displaced from their families and communities. This spiral of violence has been aggravated by security forces and incompetent judicial system of the Apartheid era. The continued violence of Apartheid era demonstrates that Apartheid is inherently a violent system. Undoing the effects of Apartheid necessitates a coherent strategy to restore peace and reconciliation in our communities. The youth policy must endeavor to contribute to the ongoing peace processes, restructuring the security forces and Judiciary System to reflect population and gender composition of our society, defend human rights and our national sovereignty.

Nation building. The massive divisions and inequalities left by Apartheid have created a dichotomous situation of a "first world" and a "third world" in one country. This has led to a divided nation and reinforced gaps amongst young people. A Youth policy will endeavor to reinforce existing initiatives to build one nation. It will foster unity amongst young people, irrespective of race, colour, sex and religion for a united nation. It will reinforce measures to build new patriotism. It will also reinforce existing initiatives to bridge the economic disparities and skewed distribution of wealth in an effort to remove socio - economic conditions which led to a divided nation.

Democratization of South Africa. The Government of National unity has moved at length in democratizing our society. Minority control and privileges in spheres such as the economy continues to be a "bottle-neck" in the thorough democratization of our country, and unleashing all resources which will make our country more prosperous and competitive in the global markets. A competitive and a prosperous country require a population that is active and is empowered to shape policies of the country. Participatory democracy unleashes the productive capacity of a population. Youth policy will encourage youth to participate in determining the development path of our country. It will encourage NGO’s and other organs of civil society, which seek to make meaningful development of the country`s youth and the people of South Africa in general.

1.7 Priority areas of action

1.7.1 The Youth Policy has nine identified priority areas of action. It is hoped that these areas will provide a framework for development of strategies aimed at dealing with youth development. These areas of action are interlinked. It is our belief that policy recommendations entailed in these strategic areas will contribute towards youth development I t is our view these recommendations should be implemented by the year 2005. These priority areas of action are: -

  • Youth and the economy
  • Youth and Human Resource Development
  • Health and Social Welfare
  • Criminal Justice System
  • Environment
  • Recreation and Sport
  • International Relations
  • Peace and Security
  • Institutional and organisational Mechanism
  • Financing and Budgeting

1.8 Defining Youth

1.8.1. The concept "youth" does not only refer to an age category. It includes a specific level of psychological and physical development. This stage of development is socially defined and changes according to a specific historical development of society. The development of capitalism, nuclear family and technology integrated people into a workforce with different skills needs and capabilities, and at different entry point in the labour markets and thus the development of young people became more complex than in earlier societies. This was coupled with the extension of universal education to all people. The increase in technological know how, the span of formal education became longer with every new generation. This meant that young people were increasingly becoming depended on their parents or society during their education phase.

1.8.2 Modern society recognizes youth as a distinct phase of human development. Youth is defined as a transition between childhood and adulthood and include the stages of puberty, adolescence and young adulthood. This transition is characterized by a number of developments, which prepares youth for adult responsibilities. These developments are different for each of the three stages of development of the youth.

1.8.3 The main feature of puberty is physical and sexual maturity (girls between 12- 14 years, boys 14 - 15). It signifies the development of an identity broader than family identity.

1.8.4 During the adolescence phase (up to 18-21 years), there is greater emphasis on identity, development of independence from parents, asserting their social values and circles particularly with peers, exploring their sexual identities, a view of the world and values. These two phases are characterized by guardianship of parents, and or state and restriction of certain rights and obligations based on age.

1.8.5 Young adulthood (1821 - 2530 years) refers to a particular phase where a young person has developed own, identity and interests. She has chosen a direction in life, defining independently relationships and allowed making decisions in society in a relatively "independent" manner. The young person in this stage is at a brink of economic independence. Higher education and creation of family units become some of the important indicators when people are at a cut off point in this stage. It is important to note that factors like class, race and gender impact directly on these three categories of youth.

1.8.6 The age of maturity becomes an important concept in developing youth policy because it is used to confer or deny whole set of rights and obligations, impacted differently on three categories of youth.

1.8.7 This Youth policy will have as it`s main target group youth between the ages of 14 - 35 years as defined in the National Youth Commission Act 99 of 1996, with the understanding that policies for children (under 14) impact on youth.

Chapter Two Situational analysis of the South African youth

2.1. Introduction.

2.1.1. Our history has been dominated by colonialism, racism, apartheid, sexism and repressive labour policies. This has resulted in economic deprivation and poverty for the majority of the people in South Africa. Our income distribution has been racially distorted. The economy of the country has been built on racism and reinforced the racial divisions in our society

2.1.2. Segregation in health, education, infrastructure and rural - urban divide has left deep scars of inequality and economic inefficiency. The "white owned big business continue to dominate economic spheres of our society. It is estimated that there are at least seventeen million people surviving below minimum subsistence levels in South Africa.

2.1.3 Young people have been on the receiving end of the viciousness of

Apartheid system. Young people in South Africa are close to eleven million and make up more than a quarter of the South African population.

2. Regional Trend

2.1 Over the past decades almost all Sub -Saharan countries have experienced detoriating economies, resulting from economic recessions, crippling foreign debt, declining international aid, economic mismanagement etc. This has led into serious cutbacks on essential social services in the 1980`s and 1990`s.

2.2 Young people have been on the receiving end of social and economic instability in the region. They had limited access to education, health and welfare services. They enter labour markets as unskilled labour in a context of diminishing employment opportunities

2.3 Young people have been forced to opt for other means to secure income. There has been substantial increase of youth participation in criminal activities. In certain circumstances, young people, and young women in particular, have opted for prostitution as a means of survival. This has exposed them to extreme forms of exploitation where they have been forced to become pimps, and working as drug couriers.

2.5 The limited access to resources in certain African States has led to civil war, conducted along ethnic lines. Marginalised young people and children have tended to be used as soldiers in these ethnic conflicts.

3 The Situation of Youth

Under Apartheid

3.1 The young people in South Africa have been victims of apartheid colonial relations. On one hand the white youth have enjoyed all the privileges during the Apartheid era. The White schools have been heavily subsidized, curriculum of these schools have been designed in a way that white students occupy dominant positions in a society both in the economic and political sphere, in line with the "White super race philosophy" of Apartheid. The job market was designed in a way that affluent jobs were exclusively kept for white youth. The Apartheid regime provided adequate infrastructure, health provision, houses and efficient health care system for whites.

3.2 On the other hand black youth lived in undernourished and poorly serviced areas. The Apartheid regime saw black youth as a reservoir for cheap labour. They were seen to as "urban outsiders" who role was to service white areas. The black education system was therefore designed in a way that it produces cheap, subservient labour. Once they were deemed "qualified" to enter job markets, they only entered these markets as cheap labour. They did not have collective bargaining rights until 1979 when the Wiehanm Commission recommended that African workers should be given collective bargaining rights. Those who were viewed as a surplus population were confined to homelands, and would be handpicked through state sponsored recruitment agencies, i.e. TEBA. This youth lived in conditions of a typical underdeveloped country, with little or no infrastructure, limited job opportunities, poor or no provision of health system and lack of democratic rights.

3.3 It is these conditions that led us to characterise South Africa as "two world(s) in one country", with whites living under luxurious, developed first world conditions and blacks living in least developed conditions characterised by social deprivation and marginalisation of young people in particular

4 Youth in the new Democracy

4.1. April 27, 1994 saw the election of the first ever democratically and non-racial government. The first democratic President, Nelson Mandela, in his first speech to Parliament recognised the impact of Apartheid on young people and pronounced as follows:

4.2 ‘The youth of our country are a valued possession of our nation. Their needs are immense and urgent. They are at the centre of the reconstruction and development programme. Without them there can be no future.’ [May 1994]

4.3. The commitment of the government to address youth development issues has been reflected through the establishment of the National Youth Commission in the President Office. The National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) a statutory body composed of business labour and community- sponsored the formation of South African Youth Council (SAYC)

4.4. Whilst the government is showing unwavering commitment to youth development, Young people continue suffer from Apartheid Legacy, This manifest itself in the following form

4.4.1 Youth unemployment.

The South African economy has gone through deep-seated structural crisis. The White minority used their control and exclusive ownership of the commanding heights of the economy and political power to promote their own interests for decades. The oppressed people have been systematically exploited and oppressed .The cheap labour system that has been a cornerstone of the Apartheid system has resulted in big conglomerates making huge profits. However these profits did not necessary lead to productive investments in the economy.

This factor combined with the racial nature of labour markets contributed directly to the problem of unemployment. The unequal distribution of wealth manifested itself in different employment trends between provinces.

It is estimated that of the economically active population, 33% are unemployed. Young people have been adversely affected by the problem of unemployment. It is estimated that youth constitute 52% of the unemployed. Only 8% - 10% of young school leavers have been able to find employment in the formal sector. The "reserve army" of the unemployed is likely to double over the next decade if there are no drastic measures taken, aimed at job creation, especially for young people.

Labour markets under Apartheid rule were structured in a way that reinforced male domination. For decades women were denied access to formal employment. They were seen as subsidizing the process of reproducing cheap labour, by performing unpaid and undervalued work in "homelands". When they entered labour markets, they were placed in the lower positions. It is estimated that the unemployment rate is 14% higher in young women than their male counter parts. The statistical breakdown of unemployment in provinces is as follows :-

Eastern Cape: 56 % of the youth population is unemployed

Northern Cape: 41 % of youth population is unemployed

Free State: 37 % of youth population is unemployed

Gauteng: 31 % or the youth population is unemployed

Northern Province: 61 percent of the youth population is unemployed

Kwazulu Natal. 48 % of the Youth Population is unemployed

Western Cape. 25% of the youth population is unemployed

North West: : 47 % of the youth population unemployed

Mpumalanga 51 percent of the youth population is unemployed

[ CASE research for the Youth Commission; 1997 , p43.]

4.4.2 Education and Training

The education system of this country has been designed in a way that it reproduces Apartheid colonial relations. The education system has been characterized by fragmentation along racial and ethnic lines. It is imbued with racist and sexist ideology of Apartheid. There is lack of access to education and training in all levels of the system. Vast disparities that exist between white and black youth have led to a situation where there is unequal access to education and training between these groups.

There is a lack of democratic control in the institutions of learning. The fragmented, unequal, and undemocratic nature of the education and training had a profound effect on the development of economy and society. Teaching methods have been instruction based, consistent with indoctrination mode of teaching. This effect of this method of teaching is that it cannot produce students who are critical and engage with social and political issues which affect them.

Inequality in the education system has meant that there are few black youth that would have access to education system. Even those few who managed to get in the education system; there is no guarantee that they will stay throughout their learning phase. It is estimated that there were two million youngsters between the ages 7- 16 years who were not in school. Those who dropped out of school before completing std 4 each year since 1988 are more than 300 000

The racial composition of this number reflected in percentage is in 1988 is as follows :-

African youth 12%
Coloured 10%
Asian 2%

[Source: Growing up in a tough , National Youth survey,CASE 1994]

The conditions that face young women are worse than those of their male counterparts. The expensive unequal education system coupled with patriarchy made access to schooling minimal for young women. For instance where a family could not afford the cost of education, it is the girls education that is sacrificed. Where families could afford to keep girls within the system, the system lacked the capacity to retain them, i.e.; conditions were hostile for pregnant women and young mothers to continue studying. These conditions included lack of childcare facilities and the hostel accommodation system.

The nature of Higher Education, further entrenched sexist stereotypes in our society. As such young women were not fully trained to deal with the labour markets. As a consequence education attainment based on gender amongst black youth is in the same year is as follows :-

Men Women
None or dropped out of schooL 9% 13%
Junior Secondary 36% 41%
Senior Secondary 48% 40%
Degree / Diploma 8% 6%

*This include technickons, training colleges and universities. At universities men outnumber women by 2:1. [Source: Growing up in a tough, National Youth Survey,CASE 1994 ]

4.4.3 Health.

  1. Like education, health provision in South Africa was fragmented along racial and ethnic lines. This fragmentation was made worse by the homeland system. This led to a situation where health provision was not uniformly coordinated. Each homeland had it`s own department of Health, it`s own priorities and business plans.
  2. Health and welfare provision in South Africa reflected the skewed nature of the distribution of wealth on racial and geographic basis. Impoverished geographic areas and communities had inadequate, and under- resourced health services whilst the affluent areas had adequate health services.
  3. Young people were oftenly at a receiving end of poor health provision. The problem of health was directly linked to poor quality of life that young people were exposed to. Limited or no access to education has meant that the rate of literacy amongst young people was relatively high. Health education programmes were nonexistent. The Apartheid regime did not give enough resources for these programmes to run especially in the rural areas.
  4. One of the crucial problems of health provision under Apartheid is that health system tended to be biased towards curative measures than preventative measures. Impoverished communities and young people in particular were not empowered enough to be able to take measures which would prevent spread of diseases.
  5. Young people were forced to embark on prostitution as means to survive. In doing so they were exposed to deadly diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, STD’s.
  6. A national survey conducted by CASE on AIDS awareness amongst young people came with the following results :-
  • 99% of young people have heard of Aids
  • 80% heard of the Aids epidemic as a problem in SA
  • 40% believe Aids is a problem in their communities
  • 25% believe Aids is a threat to themselves

The last percentage does not necessary mean that 75% of young people practice safe sex.[Source: Growing Up Tough: A National Youth Survey, CASE 1994]

4.4.4 Welfare

  1. The welfare system in South Africa was characterised by gross incompetence and maladministration. These problems arose out of the fragmented nature of the administration of the welfare system under the Apartheid system. Furthermore the corrupt officials of welfare department paid pensions to people who do not "exist".
  2. The provision of welfare system in the past has been on a piece-meal fashion and had limited impact because it did not address the causes of the social problems.

4.4.5 Marginalisation and social deprivation.

  1. Young people in South Africa are confronted with many problems. The problems arose as a result of Apartheid policies and economic decline. These young people who were confronted with this reality have been dubbed "lost generation" by dominant media.
  2. It has been argued that the present generation of youth are alienated or marginalised by socio-economic mainstream of the country. Marginalisation as used in relation to social groups, refer to a set of circumstances which resulted in group(s) having to survive outside mainstream society. In South Africa, the black majority was deliberately excluded from the political, economic, social system of the country. Within the oppressed communities these policies affected different social groups in a variety of ways - the rural landless, women, the homeless, black business, youth etc.
  3. Youth marginalisation is not specific to South Africa. In countries across the world, young people are excluded from political, social and economic power, by virtue of their age. A Resolution adopted by the twenty-seventh session of UNESCO (1993) noted that :

"...despite efforts by governmental , intergovernmental and Non - Governmental bodies around the world, the needs of young people and their potential for contributing to peaceful and democratic development of their society are still insufficiently taken into account".

4.4.6 Degrees of marginalisation.

I. Case survey on the degree of youth marginalisation in South Africa came with the following findings ;-

"Fine", youth in this category are fully engaged with society.

"At risk", youth at this category are showing signs of alienation. They comprise 43% of the overall sample. They have a potential of being alienated and therefore can be reversed.

"Marginalised", this category of youth is most in need for urgent intervention. They amount to more than 27% of the sample. Most of them are out- of-school, unemployed youth.

"Lost", the last category are youth who are completely disengaged from society. They have slipped through the social net of society. They comprise 5% of the sample - a small percentage but in numbers are close to half a million young people.

[Source: Growing Up Tough: A National Youth Survey, CASE 1994]

II. It a serious indictment to society that 75 % of it`s youth are alienated or at risk of marginalisation . Youth represent the future of this country, and unless a serious investment is made in this generation of youth , the country has no future.

4.4.7 Vulnerable categories

Street kids and Homeless young people: This category of youth refers specifically to homeless youth. They either do not have a home or shelter, or have deserted their homes for various reasons. They are amongst the most vulnerable sections in our society and are exposed to different forms of abuse.

Young Commercial Sex Workers: This category of young people has been forced to prostitution as a mechanism of escaping impoverishment in society. Prostitution becomes an option through which they can secure income. Prostitution makes this category of youth vulnerable to sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS. The society does not provide protection for prostitutes. Majorities of Sex Workers are breadwinners for second and third family nets.

Teenage Parents Lack of sexual education, and other social factors have contributed to the rise of early parenthood. Teenage parents have not always been able to maintain their children. One of the major contributing factors, has been high levels of unemployment, which has affected adversely young mothers, and the negligence of the fathers to maintain their children. These social factors have contributed to disempower young women to be "marginalised" in a society. This has been reinforced by the inaccessible health and welfare system.

Differently - abled youth The labour market has not been user friendly to disabled youth. There has been a tendency to disregard provisions for this group of people in new jobs that have been created. If lucky enough to enter the world of work, they tended to occupy the least paid jobs. Health and Safety standards tends to discriminate against this section of our population. It is estimated that over 90 percent of high rise buildings in our cities, have fire escape routes that are not use friendly to physically differently abled youth.

Youth infected with HIV AIDS: this section of young people have been exposed to abuse in different ways. The communities tend to discriminate against young people with HIV. Their rights as Human Beings tend are suppressed. The protection services have not been sensitised to deal with cases involving Human Rights Abuse of this category of young people. Counseling services are not always accessible for this category of people. Certain companies refuse to employ people who are HIV positive.

Gay and Lesbian Youth Young people with different sexual orientation have been marginalised in a society. Dominant stereotypes have encouraged negative attitudes, like homophobia to Gay and Lesbian youth. Dominant print and electronic media, Churches and other strong ideological instruments which shape attitudes and system of beliefs in a society have reinforced such attitudes. Society has reduced them into a non-recognised "subculture" running in parallel with dominant cultures in society. They become vulnerable to all forms of abuse and are sometimes forced to hide their sexual preferences and identity.

Chapter Three: Youth and the Economy

3.1 Problem statement

3.1.1 At the time of the establishment of the Government of National Unity, the South African economy for more than a decade was undergoing a deep-seated structural crisis. For decades the white minority used their exclusive ownership of the commanding height of the economy and their exclusive access to political power to promote their own sectional interests. These interests have been pursued at the expense of black people. Black people have been systematically denied access to political power and the wealth of this country.

3.1.2 One of the major problems of the South African economy is that it has

been characterized by concentration and centralization of capital to few white conglomerates. These conglomerates dominate production, distribution and financial sectors. These conglomerates collaborate on setting prices. The result of this has been that they tended to inflate prices of goods. This contributes directly to the rising inflation rates, and high standard of living. In a situation of increased unemployment rates, and young people live below the poverty datum line.

3.1.3 This problem has further been aggravated by racist and sexist policies, which adopted an inconsistent support to micro - enterprise. Small firms especially owned by black firms rarely establish productive linkages with large conglomerates. The result of this has been that black owned micro -enterprise has been marginalised in the mainstream economy. Policies of the Apartheid regime did not encourage the emergence of a powerful small business sector. Young people in the informal sector lacked productive and managerial skills plus access to business sites, capital and markets. Repressive laws seriously undermined Black business and farmers.

3.1.4 Another crucial factor which is a major cause of inefficiency and

Inequality lies in the position of African labour in the economy. Economic growth under Apartheid rule depended on a cheap African labour. The racist nature of the labour markets ignored the skill latent of the experienced labour force, more especially when those skills were not credited by any education or training institutions. Apartheid laws denied young black workers basic rights. Both State and Capital did not attempt to develop young African workers into a skilled labour force. Lack of skilled labour force stifled growth and development of modern economy that is able to sustain living standards. Apartheid economic agencies have not been representative and transparent.

Structures such as, IDC, SBDC etc. played a crucial role in economic and infrastructural development, yet they were based on Apartheid foundations and therefore reinforced the skewed distribution of wealth.


3.2.1 The vision of the Youth Policy on economy is consistent with the Reconstruction and Development Programme. The RDP central goal is to create a strong, dynamic and balanced economy which will: -

Eliminate poverty, low wages and inequalities in wages and wealth by Apartheid Policies, meet the basic needs, and thus ensure a decent standard of living and economic security.

Address the economic imbalances and structural problems caused by Apartheid economic policies in industry, trade, commerce, mining, agriculture, finance and labour markets.

Develop the Human Resource capacity of all South Africa so that the economy achieves high skills and wages; and

Most importantly to democratise the economy and empower the historically oppressed, particularly youth, women and the rural poor and their organisations by encouraging broader participation in the decisions about the economy.

Such an economy needs accommodate interests of youth and empower them to be active participants.

3.3 Current initiatives Legislation

3.3.1 The Government of National Unity has developed a Macro Economic Strategy -Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) which seeks to

  • Create a competitive fast growing economy which creates sufficient jobs for all work-seekers,
  • A redistribution of income and opportunities in favour of the poor,
  • A society in which sound health, education and other services are available to all,
  • An environment in which homes are secured and place of work are productive. (GEAR, p1)

3.3.2 In realising the above stated objectives, the integrated strategy of this economic programme includes the following elements:-

  • A renewed focus on budget reform to strengthen the redistributive thrust of this programme.
  • Tax incentives to stimulate new investment in competitive and labour absorbing projects.
  • Speeding up the restructuring of state assets to optimise investment resources
  • An expansionary infrastructure development programme to address service deficiencies and backlogs,
  • An appropriately structured flexibility within the collective bargaining system,
  • Strengthened levy systems to fund training on a scale consummate with needs.

[Source: GEAR, p2]


3.4 Public Works Programme

3.4.1 The Reconstruction and Development Programme sees the Public Works

Programme as a major vehicle to build infrastructure and in so doing contribute to addressing the problem of unemployment whilst rejuvenating the economy. One of the major challenges that a Youth policy must confront is the acute problem of youth unemployment.

Current initiatives legislation

3.4.2 The White Paper on Public Works sees the Department playing major

role in realising the government mandate through creating jobs, managing public assets, electrification, telecommunication, and information management. (White Paper, 1997,p1)

3.4.3 Key policy considerations for this include the strategic role of the

Department to provide and manage accommodation for various function line departments and therefore assist the function line departments in the development of policy and programmes for infrastructure delivery. (White Paper, 1997,p3)

3.4.5 The fact that the Public Works Department has functions such as property

Advisory services, property development and property management, and the National Public Works Programme, makes it have strong basis to influence developments in the construction and property markets to be in line with Government overall socio-economic objectives. (White Paper, 1997,p3)

3.4.6 Job creation through the National Public Works Programme is based upon the two strategic approaches: firstly, changing the rules of the provision of the infrastructure to increase labour intensivity; and secondly promote community based Public Works. (White Paper, 1997, p3)

  • Furthermore during the budget speech for the financial year 1997-8. The Minister of Finance stated that:-

"A fresh approach to procurement of construction service has greatly improved opportunities for emerging contractors and there is progress in promoting job creation on infrastructural projects.

At grassroot level the Community Based Public Works Programme is active. Of the R250 million allocated to this project from the RDP fund in 19945 R150 million was transferred to provinces, which implemented 391 projects creating a substantial number of jobs, particularly for women.

The remainder of the fund was used to fund an array of projects which together employed 97000 people, 13 percent of whom are in sustainable jobs".

[Source: Budget speech, 1997, p12]

Further Policy Proposals

3.4.7 The National Public Works Programme that the Reconstruction and

Development Programme suggests, must target young people in particular. There must be a phased increase of young people in the National Public Works Programme through National Youth Service Programme.

3.4.8 In the first year of a comprehensive National Public Works

programmes, at least 30 percent of intakes, must be young people, with gradual increase in the proceeding years.

3.4.9 A public works programme must focus mainly of training than what is

Apparent. Training priorities must ensure that it produces multi-skilled labour force that is able to adopt to the changing needs of the economy. Training acquired through the Public Works Programme must be recognised. Thus training content in the Public Works Programme must fulfill the criteria which would be set up by the South African Qualifications Authority. This will allow further vertical and horizontal mobility for those who undergone training through Public Works Programme.

3.4.10 Although a Public Works Programme is essentially government

Prerogative, there must be productive partnership between Government and private sector. The latter is going to benefit from the availability of skilled labour force. Government needs to encourage the private sector to take youth to their companies for internship and acquire the necessary experience thereby increasing employability of these youths. The government needs to explore incentives that can be given to companies who make positive contribution to reduce youth unemployment for positive contribution to the Public Works Programme. One important criteria which needs to be used for tendering for Government projects must be an evaluation of those who apply for tenders and intend through their plans or initiatives to alleviate youth unemployment.

3.4.1 The Government must support initiatives by Non- Governmental

Organisations and other agencies who are actively involved in the economic empowerment of the historically disadvantaged young people. However support for these agencies must be based on set criteria, which is in line with the Youth Policy and RDP.


There is a need of the development of National Youth Service Programme which must target specifically out of school and unemployed youth. Such programmes must seek to harness skill and talents of young people. Most importantly they must offer opportunities and encourage young people to contribute to the development of their communities.

It our view that the National Youth Service Programme be a Presidential Lead Programme. Government embark on these programmes as mechanism to deal with social deficits in a country, and thus in short term tackle the problem of unemployment. The National Youth Service Programmes however need not be construed narrowly in economic terms. Our view is that these programmes need to be designed in away that they encourage a sense of new patriotism and nation building. They need to be construed as mechanisms to encourage young people actively participate in the Reconstruction and Development of our country, as such should therefore develop a layer of RDP brigades of young people.

3.5 Small Business

Existing initiatives legislation

3.5.1 The White Paper on a National Strategy for the Development and

Promotion of Small Business in South Africa, suggest that an enabling legal framework must be created for Small Business to formally recongise the importance of this sector to economic reconstruction and development. (White Paper, 1995, p21)

3.5.2 Legislation mooted include, A National Small Business Act which could

constitute a statutory base for SBDA and other statutory bodies in this sphere. It will define main categories of SMME’s and facilitate giving of support according to these categories,

3.5.3 Transaction and Procurement Act which lays down certain categories and

Principles - set aside for small enterprise, producers, non-discriminatory public sector procurement rules and incentives for big business subcontracting to small enterprise- which could lead to participation amongst all firms, and

3.5.4 A Small Business Finance Act which could include steps to encourage

Existing financial institutions to financial institutions to become more active in SMME - market segment, facilitation of deposit taking by lender NGO’s, the recognition of certain Non Governmental collateral type and widening of scope for more scope of specialised lending and investment institutions focusing on primarily on SMME needs. (White Paper, 1995, p22)

3.5.5 In addition to proposed legislation the DTI in co-operation with the Competition Board, will closely monitor and, where possible or necessary, co-ordinate and assist the regulatory reform process. The

White Paper calls for streamlining the regulatory framework, focusing on issues like taxation, zoning and building controls, training requirements, health and occupational conditions to be more sustainable to small business.

3.5.6 The Competition Board in conjunction with the Department of Trade and

Industry needs to remove constraints inherent in the competitive structure of our economy, which inhibits the development of Small Business. (White Paper, 1995,p23)

3.5.7 Institutional support mooted in the White paper includes access to information and advice, access to finance, markets and procurement,

training in enterpreneurship, skills and management, access to appropriate technology and joint ventures with big business. (White Paper, 1995, p24-33)

3.5.8 The Department of Public Works seeks to integrate SMME’s into

Construction and property operations through the transformation of tender processes. The Public Works Department is also enhancing it’s maintenance operations via the SMME. (Green Paper, 1996,p6)]

Further policy proposals

3.5.9 This sector has a potential to alleviate youth unemployment. Coherent training must imparted by the Department of Public Works Programme in conjunction with the Department of Trade and Industry and Department of Education to youth managed SMME’s. These departments must embark on a short-term three-year programme, which will outline steps that these department are going to take to encourage youth enterperneurship.

3.5.10 Constructive partnerships between Small, Medium Enterprise, and Big Business must be encouraged. The government needs to asses the extent to which a bank supports Small Business which is youth managed as a criteria to decide a viability of investing in that bank.

3.5.11 The Department of Trade and Industry needs to review the criteria used by Small Business Development Co-operation to grant loans to young entrepreneurs. Process should be more transparent and information should be disseminated to reach the aspiring young entrepreneurs.

3.5.12 The Department of Trade and Industry must develop a viable strategy for attracting the majority of young men and women currently making ends meet to informal business into the formal small business sector. The strategy should include widening of the financial support base to cater for informal business and encourage partnerships between informal small and medium business. Such partnership should be profit and growth oriented and be empowering to the former.

3.7 Integration of Youth in the Labour Markets.

Current initiatives Legislation

3.7.1 Labour markets need to be restructured in a way that they are elastic and

thus meet the changing demands of the economy. Skills Development Strategy for Economic and Employment Growth In South Africa, 1997). The Commission further calls for an industrial policy which actively support and rewards labour intensive investments. Labour intensive mode of production will have to be accompanied by investing in human capital in a form of training and retraining to ensure employment security. (Source: Report of the Presidential Commission to investigate Labour Market, 1996)

3.7.2 A competent economy requires a skilled labour force. Progress which has been made in the Department of labour to restructure labour markets, overhaul Labour Relations Act to meet the demands of a changing economy in a New South Africa needs to be commended. It is significant in that these changes are encouraging a more skilled and productive labour. Changes in the Basic Conditions of Employment Act serves to improve working conditions for workers. Youth who enter labour markets will be confronted with a different reality than the Apartheid past.

Further Policy proposals

3.7.3 It is essential that, within the next five years that the Department of

Labour in connection with other stakeholders to make an audit of the available skills and skills needed in the same period for economic growth. Imparting of those skills to must target young people in the work place. The acquisition of skills by young workers will be linked to grading and therefore to income. The training content should be flexible to allow multi skilling of young labour. Education and training is a life-long process, it becomes imperative for the youth at work or in any sector be able to re-enter education and training in any point. This would allow a situation where training in the work place and outside is consistent with the changing technology. There is a need for a gender sensitive skills training programme.

3.7.4 Where possible Government, should introduce a quota whereby in the next five years, 30% of the new labour intake must be young people, and companies would then be eligible for Government incentives, where such an intake is in line with government`s programme to alleviate youth employment and to make young people more productive by embarking on training. The Government needs to put in place mechanisms which regulates private sector reliance on "experienced personnel" as this has a tendency to discriminate young graduates who seek to enter labour markets.

3.8 Young farmers

Current initiatives Legislation

3.8.1 The Strauss Commission which was set up to investigate Rural Financial Services which would be in line with Rural Development Strategy and the RDP recommended that there should be a Multi -sector Rural Development Bank, which could make finance available to Land Reform Programme beneficiaries, especially women who would need to acquire land for farming purposes. [Source: Strauss Commssion,1996,p10).

3.8.2 . The Commission further recommended that the state finance a risk sharing agreement. The aim of this would be to encourage both the parastatals and the private sector to service the previously disadvantaged. This agreement would cater a group of rural entrepreneurs who pooled their assets and therefore did not fulfill the criteria normally applied by financial institutions. (I.e. those who will not have recognised collateral’s) (Strauss Commission, 1986, p15)

Further Policy Proposals

3.8.3. The Department of Land and Agriculture has gone at length to establish institutional mechanisms to restore the land to their rightful owners. Aspiring young black farmers will require necessary skills and finance for their farms to become more productive. The Government in conjunction with big business must, in the next five years provide necessary infrastructure to make the newly acquired farms more productive. Young farmers who wish to produce for the market must be encouraged. Credit facilities must be extended to young farmers to make their farms more productive. This must be accompanied by necessary training on marketing, farm management, etc.

3.8.4 Specialized Colleges on farming like, Agricultural Colleges must be accessible to young farmers. The curricula must tailored around the training needs of young farmers. Where there are Development practitioners doing same training the government will seek to accredit their training so long as they follow the criteria of the National Qualifications Framework. In ensuring that the rural economy supplements the urban economy in a productive way, special care must be given to young people in the rural areas.

3.8.5 Government must render visible support to young women and men engaged in small-scale farming. Such support must include a process of minimising importation of products which young small-scale farmers are able to produce. The meeting of basic consumption needs should be derived from our own strength. Also necessary is a financial support base for farming that is biased towards young small-scale farmers.

3.9 Youth Companies Consortium

3.9.1 A number of Youth Investment portfolio/ companies have mushroomed over the past three years. The Department of Trade and Industry needs to do an audit of various youth companies that have developed. This must be coupled by providing the essential infrastructural support, ranging from finance to access to business sites and markets.

3.9.2 The Department of Trade and Industry needs to investigate a range of incentives that can be given to big companies who outsource some of their services to Youth owned and managed companies.

3.9.3 The Department of Public Works needs to be biased to Youth owned and Youth managed companies in their allocation of tenders. The scope of work must be increased with the relative increase in the capacity of these companies to deliver quality products and service.


4.1 Problem statement

4.1.1 Apartheid has produced a distorted skills profile which has been based on racism in the Apartheid era. Most South Africa whites were given opportunities to acquire formal education through universities, Technickons or through apprenticeship system, whilst the majority of black people acquired training through informal means and the skills acquired over years of experiences was not recognized.

4.1.2 The Government further limited funds for Training and this has made a number of people finding it difficult to find jobs. Although money would be distributed to various departments for training, lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanism have rendered this training ineffective. Education and training remains a crucial instrument to alleviate youth unemployment. Provision of education and training will have to be integrated and allow different entry points for young people.

4.1.3 The reluctance of most institutions to undergo transformation remains a problem that continues to cause conflict especially in the higher institutions of learning. It becomes imperative that these institutions be transformed to meet the needs of a changing society. Their student population needs to reflect the population composition of the South African population. In doing so access to higher institutions of learning must be made possible, by making education system cheap and affordable to the majority of people.

4.2 Vision and objectives.

4.2.1 Youth policy approach to human resource development must

provide opportunities to young people to improve their quality of life. There must be massive expansion and qualitative improvement in the education and training system, artistic and cultural expression, and sports and recreation. It needs to be directed at addressing development of the capabilities of young people, abilities, knowledge and the know how to meet the needs of for goods and services.

4.2.2 Young people must acquire and develop the knowledge and the skills necessary for occupational tasks and for other social, cultural and intellectual and political roles that a part and parcel of a democratic society.

4.3 Education and training.

Current Initiatives Policies

Steps, which are taken both by the Department of Education and the Department of Labour, go a long way to address the problem of Education and training in our country.

4.3.1. General Education

1. Curriculum content

Recent changes in the curriculum content of the curriculum content in the General Education level enhance the potential of pupils to develop analytical skills to engage with society. It enriches the capacity of pupils in the pursuit of their career choices. The curriculum content empowers young people at schools to wide career choices.

Further Policy Proposals

Special emphasis should be put on high quality outcome in teaching numeracy, math’s and natural science especially in the historically disadvantaged schools.

The Department of Education must in the next five years embark on in-service training for teachers who tutor maths and science to improve their capacity to deliver these subjects. Where possible the Department of Education can contract Non Governmental Organisations who do this work provided that their training programme meets the standards that the Department would have set up and that such standards will be in line with the National Qualifications Framework.

2. Governance

Current Legislation

The South African Schools Act 1996 asserts the right of each school to form a governance structure composed of Parents and Teachers which will oversee the smooth management and running of the schools. Where students or pupils have formed Student Representative Council, then it should be part of the governing structure in a school. The governing structures should be composed of all stakeholders in a school.

According to the Act the Governing structure should exercise powers such as, deciding a language policy for the school. They have a right to confirm or reject employment of staff members, decide on a disciplinary measure on an offender, be it a pupil or a staff member. The latter have a right to appeal against the decision, including a right to a legal recourse. Staff members and students are protected from victimisation when exercising the right to associate freely in a school provided such a right is exercised sensitively and causes minimum possible disruption during school hours. Labour related disputes are regulated by the New Labour Relations Act of 1996. School Governance must be as such that it encourages a culture of learning schools.

The school principal is, through an act of law are legally obliged to ensure that school governance structures are democraticaly elected in a school and that his/her immediate chain of accountability should be the governing structure.

Further Policy proposals

Each school must, through consultation and participation of all stakeholders develop a code of good conduct which shall embody agreements which serve basis for developing school rules to encourage discipline, co-operation tolerance and good behavior.

The Department of Education needs to develop an induction programme for the newly elected school governing bodies so as to ensure that these structures are aware of their mandate and their role. These structures to influence government policy on matters relating to education.

(c) Funding & Material Support.

Restoring a culture of learning in school necessitates the government to create necessary conditions for this to be realised. There is an urgent necessity for the government to renovate damaged schools and provide necessary learning material including furniture in schools in the townships.

Further Policy proposals

In the rural areas the massive eletricfication programme must prioritise schools. Whilst renovating schools and creating an adequate learning environment will be a government programme , private sector must be encouraged to be active in this endeavor.

The private sector should be encouraged to "adopt a province/school" where these companies can then fund those schools. The Government will ensure that the distribution of resources is along the lines of equity and schools in historically disadvantaged communities are targeted. The Government will, where necessary intervene and avail resources to schools which have been left out in a "adopt a school" programme to ensure that all schools benefit from material and financial support. The "adopt a school" programme must essentially be a government - driven programme, to ensure coordination of distribution of resources. The government must however work in consultation with role-players and stakeholders. The Government needs to develop a set criteria for the recipients of the "adopt a school" programme.

In addition to government initiatives, school governance structures will be encouraged to develop independent sources of revenue. The school governance structures will decide on issues like school funds. The Provincial Department of Education will have to ensure that no pupilstudent is excluded purely on the basis of non -payment of school fund.

4.3.2 Further Education and training

Problem statement

Professional and Vocational Training has been designed in way that has been consistent with the Apartheid attitude to Education and Training.

Teacher training for an example has been based on the ‘conservative training’ method - " Fundamental Pedagogy". This instructional-based mode of teaching undermines prior experience of learners in a classroom and assumes that the teachers have absolute knowledge. Technical and specialized Colleges on the other hand the training content of these colleges do not always correspond to the changing technological needs.

Training lags behind changes in technology. Integration of training to economic development requires a massive overhaul in the Training curriculum to meet economic growth needs.

Current Policy Initiatives

The Further Education and Training bill (1998) adopts a developmental approach to the transformation of this band in two senses, (1) it signals the critical role of the FET in social and economic development, and that the implementation of the Ministry’s vision and strategy will require a systematic efforts to overcome resource and capacity constraints which hold back the pace of change (1998:3). The importance of policy initiatives in the FET band is that it seeks to deal with the collapse of youth labour markets. The new framework for the FET is based on the following pillars :-

1. Coordination and partnerships

The new FET system will be based on cooperative governance within the government, and partnership between the government and other key stakeholders. The system will seek to balance the role of the market and governmental initiative, coordination and stimulus.

2. Coordination and strategic planning.

The Green paper calls for an adoption of a model of strategic planning. There is a need for a creation of an enabling policy and planning environment, the use of steering and regulatory mechanisms to ensure greater coherence, responsiveness and accountability in the provision of the FET. Five important aspects of strategic planning can be identified

The setting of national, provincial and institutional goals and objectives for FET.

The establishment of a system of financial and financial incentives to steer the system.

The establishment of a regulatory framework

the use of performance indicators, management information systems and labour market information, and institutional level strategic planning.

3. Flexibility and responsiveness.

The levels and range of education and training programmes funded through FET system, together with programme content and modes of delivery, needs to be far more closely linked to the requirement of the people who are currently employed and who seek retraining, improve their skills or enter further education. The FET programmes needs to be responsive to the large numbers of unemployed for whom entrepreneurial and other skills, retraining opportunities and further education constitute critically important avenues away from cycles of poverty and deprivation.

4. Enhanced articulation

The new FET system will allow people from employment or unemployment to re- enter Further Education and Training system to provide retraining, (second chance opportunities, personal development, community and leisure courses)

Further Policy Proposals

Colleges need to articulate a clear transformation agenda based on the same criteria for Higher institutions of learning articulated in this policy document.

The Green paper on Further Education and Training emphasise institutional autonomy. The adverse effect of this emphasis is that it gives limited scope for government to intervene and accelerate institutional transformation.

There is a need for a scope for government to intervene in institutions which resist transformation

4.3.3 Training

Policy Initiatives

The Green Paper on Skills Development Strategy for Economic and Employment Growth in South Africa released by the Department of Labour calls for a national Skills Development Strategy that is clearly aligned to with the overall economic and development of the government. [Green Paper,1997, p21]

In addition to A National Skills Authority, a Research and Strategic Planning Authority will be based in the Department of Labour. The brief of this unit will be to establish broad labour market trends in the country and identify the implications trends for skills development. (Green Paper, 1997, p21)

The Sector Training Organisations will develop industry based training strategies and link training provision to work. These sector-based organisations will assist communities, enterprises, individuals and industries when formulating or executing training plans, and assisting in linking these plans to other related strategic objectives. The Sector Training Organisations (STO’s) will be represented in National Skills Authority.(Green Paper,1997,18)

Further Policy Proposals

The National Skills Authority, which is proposed by the Department of Labour in, consultation with the National Youth Commission must in the next three years monitor transformation in the Professional and Vocational centers of learning. The ongoing skills audit which the Department of Labour will engage on in the next five years, must accompanied by training which must be directed mainly to young people, with an initial start of 30% of youth intake to progressive increase of 13% -to 15% in the following years.

The National Skills Authority in conjunction with the National Youth Commission will put in place monitoring and evaluation techniques aimed at assessing the impact of the Skills Development Strategy to "full employment" of the young people who would have undergone training over the same period. This will assist in developing a skill database of the young skilled labour force and acting, as a reference point for the industry in their Human Resource needs.

Ongoing monitoring of the available skilled labour force must correspond to the ongoing evaluation of the essential skills for economic growth and development. The Skills Development Authority and the National Youth Commission will therefore need to set out a criteria which will make training flexible and elastic to expressed training needs. It must ensure that the skilled labour force is allowed re-entry to training so that skills acquired are consistent with the technological changes.

South Africa is one of the very few countries, which does not have a Youth Training Scheme, which is partly or wholly funded by the Government. Initiatives to pilot such programmes have been undertaken by Non-Governmental organisations and Private Sector through programes such as the National Youth Service Initiative under the auspices of the now-defunct National Youth Development Forum. Although such programmes do contribute to increase skill levels of the unemployed youth and their employability, these programmes cannot be sustained in the absence of government intervention and enabling framework. The NGO`s do not necessary have neither the infrastructure nor the capacity to embark on these programmes on a massive scale. Recipients of these initiatives are confined to certain areas, and thus these programmes have a limited impact on the development of Human Resources targeting mainly young people.

It becomes therefore essential for the government to intervene on programmes of this nature. Government intervention should not only be limited to funding. The government needs to avail the underutilised buildings to be used as Youth Training centres which must be established throughout the country. The Government must, in consultation with the stakeholders, work on a uniform curriculum for training delivery in the Training Centres.

Training provided in the Youth Training Centres must be accredited and therefore must meet the criteria of the National Qualifications Framework.

4.3.4 Adult Basic Education and Training

Problem Statement

Adult basic education is an area that the Apartheid regime ignored during it’s reign.

Current Policy Proposals

The White paper on Education [1996] identifies Adult and Basic Education as one priority area.

Current initiatives taken by Non Governmental Organisations to address the problem of illiteracy in rural and urban areas needs to be commended.

Further Policy Proposals

The Government needs to support the NGO`s who have been spearheading this initiative

There is an urgent need to integrate informal and formal education. The work that is done by literacy workers needs to be recognised.

The South African Qualifications Authority and the National Qualifications Framework must be established within the next five years, and provide uniform standards for provision of Adult Basic Education and integrate it to formal education.

4.3.5 Higher Education

Problem Statement

Higher Education provision in South Africa had been adversely affected by Apartheid, both in terms of accessibility and the curriculum content.

Lack of resources in institutions has meant that the system would not sustain students from disadvantaged background. The Legacy of Apartheid of resource distribution between historically White universities and historically black institutions has meant that the latter would find it difficult to sustain the system.

The governing structures in these institutions have not always been representative and responsive to the needs of the majority of students.

Current initiatives legislation

1 Governance

The Higher Education Act (1997) argues that the onus is on institutions to review internal governance arrangements and to make appropriate adjustments. The Ministry argues for the establishment of broad transformation forums of institutional stakeholders as interim advisory bodies for restructuring and innovation, for identifying problems, for mediating interests and for advising councils, senates and Student Representative Council. Composition, procedures etc., would vary according to needs of institutions.

Further policy proposals

The role of transformation forums should go beyond than just playing an advisory role. They should be given jurisdictional power to effect transformation at an institutional level. The rational behind giving such powers to transformation forums, is that both the Senate and Council represent sectional interests in many institutions of higher learning.

A thorough transformation of individual institutions requires a rapid change of both the Senate and the Council both in their composition and their orientation to enable these structures to play a fully transformatory role.

There is a need for capacity building amongst various stakeholders in an institution on issues relation to transformation so that they can take informed decisions on policy related issues at an institutional levels.

This capacity building programme must complement transparent and democratic processes as it relates to issues like policy formulation, resources and funding etc.

(c) Access

Current initiatives legislation

The report of the National Commission on Higher Education calls for a massification of the Higher Education, which would respond to substantial economic and labour market demand for higher level person power in private, public and informal sectors.

[Source: NCHE Report, 1996, p62]

The Green paper on Higher Education suggests that the participation rate of the 20-24 age cohort be increased 21 to 30 over the ten years (a rise in student numbers from about 800 000 in 1995 to about 1500 000 in 2005). This is however provisional until a more detail and labour market analyses are available. [Green Paper, 1996, p19].

The "massification" of Higher Education requires a flexible multiple -entry points in the education system, to cater for mature students pursuing multi-skilling and reskilling and as well as providing places to adults previously denied access to Higher Education. It must be able to sustain those who go through the system. This also necessitate a diversification of the delivery mode of tuition to include, "technology enhanced open learning", distance education etc.[Green Paper,1996]

Further Policy Proposals

The Department of Education must in the next three years do a feasibility study on infrastructure necessary to ensure a diversification of teaching mode to incorporate, "open learning universities", distance education etc.

(d) Redress

Current initiatives legislation

In embarking on concrete steps towards redress, the Green Paper on Higher Education Transformation will estimate from budget outlays, initially each of the Budget years, 1998, 1999 and 2000, an amount dedicated to a programme of funding to redress inequities and deficiencies experienced by Historically Disadvantaged Institutions. [Green Paper, 1996,p85]

Funds provided through this programme will be available to support improvements in the following areas, academic development, curriculum development, library holdings, student amenities, buildings and the development of institutional capacity. [Green Paper, 1996]

Further Policy Proposals

Resources also need to be directed mainly to the historically disadvantaged higher institutions of learning where there has been expressed needs of resources.

Funding criteria for all higher institution of learning, with special emphasis on "Historically White institutions", must include amongst other things , a transformation agenda within the next three years which focus on the following major areas: (a) Governance, (b) Access, (c) Pedagogy, (d) Financial allocation

Evaluation of the transformation agenda must along this criteria, must be based on the broad objectives of the RDP strategy on Human Resource Development and the White Paper on Education.

The Government in cooperation with NGO’s must develop programmes which will deploy newly graduates to do community service

4.3.6 Career Guidance and Counseling

Problem Statement

Apartheid Education provided limited career guidance and counseling for black students. Where there has been career guidance it has been provided on an adhoc and temporary basis. No serious attempts have been made to assess the potential of individual black student and direct that potential in a direction, which is best, suited to individual student. Career counseling tended to be a responsibility of a teacher who did that kind of work on a temporary basis. Often these teachers are not suitably qualified to do this kind of work.

Policy proposals

Career guidance remains a crucial part in Human Resource Development. The Department of Education needs to train more teachers to provide career guidance to young people at school.

The Department of Education in consultation with the Department of Labour must provide an updated information on career opportunities, which has to be widely distributed in schools.

The Department of Education must in the interim support NGO’s who provide career guidance to students. Companies must be encouraged to hold career exhibitions for young students.

  • A Culture of Service

Our view has always been that there is a need to integrate learning and training. There is a need therefore for young people in school and Higher Institutions of Learning to b encouraged to do community work. This must be integrated into the curriculum in institutions. These programmes should be designed in away that young people a preapred for future challenges and must build social and community conciousness amongst young people.

4.3.7 Science, Information and Technology

Problem Statement

The acquisition of scientific knowledge remains in the hands of the few elite in society. Apartheid education has further limited opportunities for the majority of young people to acquire this kind of knowledge.

In a highly polarised society like our Apartheid past, scientific knowledge has been used to reproduce Apartheid colonial social relations. Only recently did the Apartheid regime admit that it has nuclear capability. The Chemical producing and processing industry is plagued by technology, which threatens health and safety of young workers in the factories. Mining technology indirectly contributes to the destruction of environment.

Further Policy proposals

Science and Technology must contribute to holistic and sustainable development of our society. Science and Technology must contribute to the preservation our natural resources and our environment. The developmental strategies must endeavor to preserve these resource for future generation.

Young people must be encouraged to acquire scientific information through education, research and other means, which can be used to develop an environmental friendly technology. State - sponsored institutes such as the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), must play an active role to realise this objective. Their outreach programmes must target schools in the historically disadvantaged communities in order to encourage interests amongst young people in science and technology related disciplines. It is imperative for this institutions to be representative in their programmes and their personnel.

There is a need for a programme aimed specifically at attracting and sustaining young women in the science and technology study directions.

4.3.8 Information

Problem Statement

South Africa has emerged from a situation where flow of ideas and information in a society has been deliberately manipulated by the Apartheid government. Mainstream media continues to dominate flow of information and to a certain extent set the agenda on issues of national concern. The danger with this lies in the fact that Print media is controlled by white conglomerates. They tend to present their sectional interests as national interests and present only information, which is consistent to their interests. This tends to limit the scope of debate on national issues, and limited choices are presented to our people to make informed decisions.

Further Policy Proposals

A democratic information programme as suggested in the RDP must include amongst other things, unbundling of monopoly of dominant media ownership by White conglomerates. Affirmative action programme aimed at increasing the capacity of the historically disadvantaged communities to manage the flow of information in a society must target young people interested in media.

The Department of Post and Telecommunications and a restructured South African Communications Services must develop a five-year - programme which will be aimed at improving the capacity of young people to manage information, in a way that it empowers communities to make informed choices and decisions.

The processes of democratisation of airwaves by the government needs to be encouraged and be used to the benefit of young people.

It is crucial to redress the gender stereotypes that existed in the public broadcasting. The restructuring process of public broadcaster should be gender sensitive. The process must entail employment and training of young women in key and decision-making positions.

CHAPTER FIVE: Arts and Culture, Sports and Recreation


Problem Statement

Arts and Culture has been used by the Apartheid regime to divide young people.

The previous government used resources to support the development and the articulation of the white culture at the expense of arts and culture from previously disadvantaged communities

Objectives of Policy

The marginalisation of art and culture of the majority of the people needs to be reversed.

The promotion of the rich and diverse expression of South African culture.

Cultural and artistic expression must unify the nation in general and young people in particular, so as to close the gaps caused by the Apartheid past.

Policy and Programme Initiatives

The Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology has developed a comprehensive strategy to deal with the legacy of inequality in cultural expression. The Cultural Growth Industries (GCIS) seek to provide technical support and market for cultural items produced by black artists. This strategy is conceived along the lines of promoting cultural tourism.

The Department has been involved in processes of transforming the Performing Arts councils and ensure that articulation of arts and culture becomes representative of the population composition of South Africa

Further Policy Proposals

Resource allocation for appreciation of arts and culture must target young people from communities previously denied access to these resources.

The government owned Arts Gallery and Museum must target young people and empower them to develop their creative potential.

The CGIS should in it`s various phases of implementation ensure that there is a specific number for young people.


The democratic government must, in the process of redefining heritage, ensure that leaders of young people who contributed in the struggle against Apartheid occupy their rightful place in the Hero`s Acre.

Creative ways must be sought by government and civil society to project the young heroes as mentors for future generation of young people. It is our contention that such a step will assist in building social fabric amongst our young people and also develop a new sense of patriotism.

The creation of Freedom Square, Freedom Park must enhance local economic development, and cultural tourism. These initiatives should identify young people as target both as recipients and as active partners.


Problem Statement

Sports and Recreation under Apartheid rule was biased towards the white minority.

The white minority was able to have access to major sports code. Sports and recreational facilities under heavily subisidised in white areas and the African areas were under- resourced

The net effect of the skewed distribution of resources meant that the African majority would be disadvantaged from participating in major sport codes. Sports codes like rugby, swimming, water polo etc. continue to reflect the legacy of our Apartheid past.

Major national teams that compete at an international level are not representative of the population demography of South Africa, except soccer.

Policy Initiatives and Programmes

The government through the Department of Sports have encouraged sports bodies to designed development programmes clinics to unravel the potential of the sports players from disadvantaged communities.

The White Paper on Sports (1998) further calls for the establishment of the Sports Council which must amongst other things monitor transformation of sports bodies, both in terms of their composition and the representativity of the sports codes.

Further Policy Proposals

Sport and recreational facilities must be made available to the previously disadvantaged communities.

The Department of Sport and Recreation needs to assess the impact of development clinics in black communities and develop mechanisms to make these more effective so that sport becomes a heritage of our nation.

The Department of Sport needs to create opportunities for appreciation of various sport activities presently enjoyed by the white elite, for young people from black communities.

The department of Sports must embark on a process of attracting more women into sports, developing those who have just entered sporting as an activity so that they can realise their full potential, and also supporting those who are already active in sports. The process should include financial support through partnerships with business and an education campaign aimed at remove sexist stigmas attached to some sporting codes. The assessment of sport development clinics should encompass impact studies on young women.



Problem statement

Health and welfare provision in South Africa has been severely damaged by Apartheid policies and their results. The Health and social system which has been developed has been grossly ineffective. Although South Africa spent more than R550 per capita on health which is comparably high according to international standards, Apartheid management policies have been wasteful monies spent on health have directed mainly at maintaining the fragmented Health beaurocracy in South Africa and the former "homelands."

The problem has further been compounded by the fact that provision of health services complemented the skewed trend of the distribution of wealth in the country. The fragmentation of health services has meant that health provision tended to be inefficient and ineffective. Resources are grossly mismanaged and poorly distributed. Undernourished communities where health services are needed most are without those services.

Apartheid education has introduced health education in schools in a piecemeal and inconsistent fashion. Health education was not systematically built into school curriculum. The result of this has been that health education has remained an option of the teachers or that school. Health officers who visited schools has not always provided this on a sustained basis

Vision and Objectives

There is an urgent need to improve health service in improving the quality of life of the ordinary people. The shift in emphasis of the health system from curative to preventative mechanisms needs to be commended. It therefore becomes essential that the reconstruction of health services constitute a complete transformation of the delivery system. Transformation of health services will have to be linked to the qualitative improvement of lives of ordinary people.

The health system must empower communities to be able to deal with health related issues.

Policy Initiatives and Programs

Over the last four years the government has been able to make Public health care free of charge for pregnant women and children under the age of six.

The government has also been able to restore the rights of women to choose on termination of pregnancy (reproductive rights)

The government has further introduced compulsory community service for dentists and newly graduated doctors.

Further Policy Proposals

There is an urgent need to expand the Primary Health Care. Priority should be given to rural areas. The Department of Health must ensure that clinics are built in the villages over the next five years to make health accessible in rural areas. Creative ways should be developed to empower rural communities, and young people in particular to deal with health issues.

Literacy workers should be involved designing health related training to be in a way that is accessible to young people, and be incorporated as part of reducing illiteracy in these areas. Special emphasis should be put on improve the doctor-patient ratio in the rural areas.

The recommendation that doctors should spend a minimum of two years in the rural areas on completion of their studies needs to be enforced by a decree of law in the next three years.

The government should release resources for effective implementation of compulsory community services

6.2 Health education in schools

Problem Statement

The department of health did not have enough human resource to carry out health education in schools. Where health education programme have been run, they did not cover topics like Sexuality education, including sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.

Further Policy Proposals

There is an urgent need of revising teacher training. Within the next five years content of teacher training must cover areas such as health education.

The content of health education in schools must be relevant and empowering.

The teaching process must form part of a transformation of the health system from curative to preventative.


Problem statement

Young people are particularly vulnerable to AIDS and STD`s infection because they are sexually active. A majority of young people cannot read or write and thus cannot access information about these diseases immediately. The degree of marginalisation and alienation of youth has driven young people without jobs to opt for prostitution as means of survival. This makes them vulnerable to be infected to diseases like HIV - Aids.

Further Policy Proposals

The rapid expansion of national Aids programme aimed specifically at young people.

The Department of Health should develop constructive partnership with role players in a struggle against aids.

In meeting the human resource backlog in the Department of health, the Government should contract Non-Governmental Organisations in the field of health who are doing aids education.

Where possible training in the rural and urban areas should lead to a formation of health committees, which be could trained to do health education in their constituencies.

In addition to this kind of training, special emphasis should be put at peer group training.

A systematic programme should be developed where there would be a continuous training of voluntary health workers in the communities.

People who are already infected with Aids must receive protection from and by the government. The government needs to sensitize communities not to discriminate against people who are HIV positive. Their rights as human beings must be protected. This must include enactment of a legislation to protect the right s of people who are HIV positive. Special attention should be paid to the Insurance Industry and other businesses that discriminate against HIV infected people

The government needs to upgrade counseling services for people with Aids.

The Department of Social Welfare needs to provide support to institutions, which offers assistance to people who are suffering from AIDS.

6.4 Nutrition

Problem Statement

An enormous number of children under the age of ten are malnourished. Thousands of young people are hungry or live in fear of being hungry. Malnutrition is closely related to poverty levels and thus they vary according to provinces.

Policy and Program Initiatives

The Department of Health and Welfare are already engaged in programme to provide nutrition to school going youth.

The Office of the Deputy President has released latest statistics and analysis of the levels of poverty in South Africa.

Further Policy Proposals

The government, the Department of Health must on the short term (i.e. within the next three years) ensure that they can get basic nutritional requirements.

An important step towards food security remains in the provision of productive employment opportunities, through land reform, job creation programmes and the reorganisation of the economy.

6.5 Alcohol and Substance abuse

Problem statement

The rising unemployment, inaccessible education system, social deprivation and marginalisation of young people, are some of the contributing factors to the increase in alcohol and substance abuse amongst young people. There has been limited attempt to educate young people on the responsible use of alcohol.

Policy Proposals

It is imperative that initiatives aimed at combating Alcohol and Substance Abuse complement a programme aimed at removing the socio -economic conditions, which led to rise in substance abuse.

The Department of Social Welfare must ensure that counseling Facilities are provided to give support to those who are addicted and require assistance.

The Department of Health and the Department of Social Welfare must embark on a massive information campaign with the view to sensitize young people about the dangers of Alcohol and Substance abuse.

6.6 Violence

Problem Statement

Young people have been at centre of violence in turbulent communities. Youth have been exposed different forms of violence. The much publicised form of violence has been political violence.

Other common form of violence which occurs is partner beating, Rape, Date rape, and most occurrences which are not reported are child violent abuse, child sex abuse. Rape is particularly affecting young women in our everyday life.

Policy and Programme Initiatives

The government announces the National Crime Prevention Strategy in effort to curb high levels of crime in South Africa.

Communities have set up police forums in an effort to assist police to combat crime.

The government has recently released police municipality bill in an effort to empower local tiers of government to supplement effort to combat crime

Further Policy Proposals

There is a need for sensitization of the police force and the Department of Justice to deal with these cases. Both Departments must work out a three-year programme, in the next two years, which will be aimed at changing both attitudes of their personnel and mechanisms of administering such cases.

The Department of Welfare must in the next three years support the existing initiatives to provide counseling to victims of rape and abuse.

Community police forums should be given legal status and be empowered to fulfill their role in an effective manner.

Paralegal training and other forms of empowerment should be given to community police forums.

Chapter Six a. The Criminal Justice System

6.1 Problem Statement

6.1.1 South Africa is experiencing an unprecedented increase in crime rates over the last decades. The increase in crime has coincided with the increase in unemployment rate, violence and the breakdown of social fabric in our communities. Young people responded to marginalisation and social deprivation by reasserting their authority in society through criminal and violent means.

6.1.2 This coincided with a crisis of legitimacy of the policing system, which arose out of the manipulation of the police force by the Apartheid Regime. Communities found it difficult to cooperate with the police force as they were seen as repressive machinery of the Apartheid regime.

6.1.3 The criminal Justice system in Apartheid South Africa has not contributed to positive reduction in crime levels. The Correctional Service has only reproduced a society of gangsters, where those who go out of the system are guaranteed a return into the system. A problem with the system is that it has been based on punitive measures. Young offenders and old offenders awaiting trials have been accommodated in the same cell. Young offenders were exposed to different kinds of abuses, including sexual abuse in the cells.

6.1.4 The psychological effect of this, has been that young offenders would be unstable for the rest of their lives. They would develop mentorship from the adult offenders and in a context of youth marginalization and social deprivation these young offenders would demonstrate their masculinity by embarking on more criminal activity.

6.2 Vision

6.2.1 The criminal and Juvenile Justice System must be aimed at rehabilitating both young and old offenders to play a constructive role in society. Constructive measures should be taken to resocialise young offenders to the mainstream society.

6.2.2 Changes in the Criminal and Juvenile System should correspond to attempts to alleviate socio- economic problems that make possible increase in crime levels. Special attention should be given to reverse Youth Marginalisation and Social Deprivation caused by Apartheid Policies. The juvenile system must empower young people to be employable in the mainstream society, and or encourage them to undertake formal schooling once they have finished their sentences.

6.2.3 The Juvenile system should be in line with United Nations Juvenile Justice System, which protect the following rights of Juveniles: -

  • Legal protection, detention as last resort, no incarceration and the establishment of juvenile courts
  • Social welfare to be provided by the state
  • Protection against abuse and violence
  • Protection in situations of war and against military conscription before the age of 18 years.

Current/ initiatives.

The President passed a decree in 1995 to release children awaiting trial in prisons and police cells. The cabinet established inter-ministerial committee with a brief to manage crisis within the child and youth care system. The child and youth care system integrates youth justice components and out of home placements., thereby providing a holistic and integrated system for children in trouble with the law and as well as those who need protection

6.3 Policy Proposals.

6.3.1 The Department of Correctional Service must provide separate accommodation for juveniles awaiting trials in the next two years. A ban must be imposed on children serving sentence accommodated with adult. In the next three years, the Department should build adequate prisons for young offenders. These prisons must be well resourced so as to create an enabling environment for rehabilitation among young offenders.

6.3.2 The Department of Correctional Services in consultation with relevant stakeholders must in the next three years develop a comprehensive training programme aimed specifically at Professional and Vocational Education for young offenders. This training must conform to the National Qualifications Framework and thus be accredited. This would assist in giving young offenders a second chance to make it in society.

6.3.3 Other education programmes which must be encouraged are health and sex education programmes. There has been a marked increase in the spread of Aids in the prisons. Sex education needs to be encouraged so as to sensitize young offenders to Sexually Transmitted Diseases. High Quality Condoms must be distributed to the centers of rehabilitation for free of charge.

6.3.4 National Crime Prevention Strategy

Current Initiatives The Government has developed a National Crime Prevention Strategy to attempt to fight increasing crime levels in South Africa. This strategy puts at the centre of preventing crime the maximisation of civil society`s participation in mobilising and sustaining crime prevention strategies. One of the most important pillar that the crime prevention strategy suggests is Community Values and Education. This initiative is aimed at changing the attitude of communities reaction to crime and violence and facilitate meaningful participation of the communities to combat crime. The police need to embark on this public education programme.

Policy Proposals Constructive partnerships must be built between the police force and youth formations in conceptualising and implementing crime education in communities. Although youth formation should assist in driving the process, there needs to be adequate consultation over the implementation for such a programme with community representatives and organisation to solicit wide support for the process. The public education programme must be an intergral part of the programmes of community policing forum, and where these do not exist, the education programme must be used as a stepping stone to build community policing forum.

6.5 Community Police Forums

6.5.1 One important method in dealing with crime is to build a spirit of cooperation between police and communities. This necessitate a dual process where the police will increasingly be accountable to the communities they serve and the communities on the other hand need to cooperate with police by providing necessary information so that police are able to apprehend those who engage in criminal activities. Crime Prevention remains essentially a responsibility of the law enforcement agency; community formation must co-operate and assist police to combat crime. Community police forum thus provides a platform where all stakeholders can implement Government Crime Prevention Strategy at a community level. Community initiatives such as Neighbourhood watch must be encouraged to be part of community Police forum.

6.5.2 Youth formations need to play an active role in ensuring that community police forums are formed in all communities.

Chapter Seven: - Environment

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 The Apartheid regime lacked a political will to deal with environmental issues. Where legislation has been passed, it has not been implemented in a consistent manner that would preserve our natural heritage. The insensitivity of the Apartheid regime in dealing with environmental issues has been linked to the racist ideology of the Apartheid Government.

7.1.2 Hazardous waste, including mine dumps were put near to the African townships and areas that belonged to Whites were environmentally friendly.

7.1.3 Mining continues to play a crucial role in the South African economy. Gold and coal mining have polluted surface and ground water resources. Mining has also led to a depletion of ground water supplies. The mineral processing has a potential of polluting huge areas, through air pollution.

7.1.4 Two thirds of all South Africans live in non- electrified homes. Most rural communities rely of wood for cooking and heating. The danger with this lies in the fact that the use of fuel wood, in the long-term, leads to deforestation. It further increases the household burden on women, in that they are forced to spend most of their time looking for wood. Smoke from coal is a health harzard and causes respiratory disease.

7.1.5 South Africa, like the rest of the developing countries is experiencing unprecedented population growth in cities. Apartheid cities have not been able to meet demands of a growing city population. This resulted in a backlog of affordable for poor household. This has impacted negatively on women - headed household.

7.1.6 The development of low-density houses in White areas and high density houses for black in the periphery of urban areas has led to a loss of agricultural and ecologically important land. Air pollution continues to be a major problem especially in the townships where coal is used for cooking.

7.2 Vision.

7.2.1 Youth policy seeks to link environmental issues to social transformation to meet basic human needs and enhancing our quality of life - economic quality, health care, housing, human rights and democracy. Youth policy seeks to challenge the abuse of power, which result in poor people having to suffer the effect of environmental damage. The youth policy seeks to encourage youth to participate in environmental issues, as they are a future generation.

7.3 Principles

7.3.1 Our approach to environmental protection is rooted on the following principles: -

  • A right to a peaceful, healthy and ecologically sound environment that meets the basic needs of our communities.
  • Responsible management, protection and enhancement of environment and natural resources (both renewable and non- renewable) for present and future generations.
  • Participation of people in decision -making processes which affect their environment and well being.
  • Equitable distribution and access to resources for economic and social development.
  • Prioritize sustainable economic and social development that is environmentally friendly.
  • commitment to an integrated, coordinated and effective environmental management framework.
  • A commitment for South Africa to fulfill it`s responsibility to global


7.2 Policy Proposals

7.2.1 Land and Water South Africa is having scarce water resources. It therefore becomes essential that water should be used in a manner that is responsible. It becomes essential that the Government embark on a capacity building programme directed at communities and young people so that they are able to develop effective management and maintenance skills of water resources. The evaluation of proposed development plans must include amongst other things the environmental impact affecting water and wetlands. It becomes essential for re-use and recycling of water in industry and household for effective conservation of water. Land as a resource should also be used in a way that is environmentally friendly. Government needs to educate the Public about dangerous Chemicals, which are used as pesticides, and harzadous to land and environment in commercial farms. In addition to listing these pesticides, they must also be banned for production and circulation our country. Aspiring young farmers must be taught farming techniques, which are environmentally friendly.

7.2.2 Mining and Energy The government must work out a five-year plan aimed at massive expansion of electricity to historically disadvantaged communities. The massive electrification programme must target rural areas, schools & hospitals. Young People and communities must be taught on the responsible use of electricity. The massive electrification programme must be linked to a Rural Development Strategy aiming at addressing the unequal access to resources.

Young people must be actively involved in monitoring impact of energy production. It becomes essential that in the coming years the government must take over the regulation of environmental management of mines. A portion of mining revenue must be used to finance and rehabilitate abandoned mines and affected areas. Communities who are directly or indirectly affected by harzardous nature of mining activities must be consulted on formulation of policies aimed at improving the management of environment in mining areas.

7.2.3 Urban Environment An urban planning process must formally incorporate environmental concerns. The must be an evaluation of the environmental impact of industrial development plans before they are approved. Housing designs and Housing development must be sensitive to environmental issues such as conservation of energy. Land identified for further urban development must be evaluated in terms of it’s ecological importance, and whether it is not contaminated. Public transport must be made efficient to reduce air pollution. The Municipal infrastructure projects must be implemented as a matter of urgency and must also focus on issues like waste management especially in the African Townships. This must include the upgrading of sewerage infrastructure so as to make these areas healthier and habitable. Communities and young people must be taught about water pollution and water monitoring. The Department of Tourism and the Department Water Affairs must encourage initiatives by local communities to create parks and make those communities, tourist attraction sites. Both Departments must create channels whereby young people can be encouraged to be actively involved in environmental issues.

7.2.4 International Obligations The concern about environmental issues has transcended national boundaries. The threat of Ozone layer affects the whole world. At the centre of international relations must be the cooperation of the nations of the world on environmental management at a global level. A number of initiatives at a global level have been done and this included strong monitoring of the production and use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons. It has increasingly become clear over the years that environmental issues cannot be divorced from development issues.

7.2.5 Agenda 21 One of the most important documents signed at in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was Agenda 21. This document is aimed at providing high quality environment and healthy economy for all people of the world. The document provides a guide to individuals, business and governments in making for "less environmentally" destructive development. The major theme of the document is to eradicate poverty by giving poor people more access to resources to live sustainably, including information and skills. It calls upon governments working with international organisations, business, regional and local governments and Non governmental Organisations and citizen group to develop national strategies for sustainable development in a going process of consultation and global democratization from local to international levels. The Government of National Unity has since ratified Agenda 21. It becomes imperative that the Department of Environment and Tourism must hold broad consultations on the implications of Agenda 21 for development strategy of our country. Creative ways must be found by the government and other role players to disseminate Agenda 21 in a way that it becomes accessible to the ordinary people. Broad consultation must lead to a formulation of "our national agenda 21" which must be rooted in the realities and development priorities of our country.

Chapter Eight Peace and Security

8.1 Problem Statement

8.1.1 The post Second World war period saw a new ideological conflict manifesting itself into a division of the world into two power blocs i.e. the Soviet bloc and capitalist bloc. The intensity of the tension between these blocs has led to a proliferation of nuclear weapons, which have the capacity of destroying both human beings and natural heritage of this world.

8.1.2 The development of nuclear weapons were done in the name of improving security, however these proved to be threat to world peace and security. The "new global era" saw the emergence of a new unipolar world. A different form of conflict is beginning to resurge and threaten world peace. There has not been a massive destruction of nuclear and chemical weapons over the past four years. Simantenuosly there has been a rise of religious fundamentalism and racial and ethnic genocide, which threatens world peace and security. South Africa is recovering from political violence, which is linked to Apartheid rule.

8.2 Vision

8.2.1 The youth policy envisages a society, which free from conflicts- threatening to take human life, and endanger natural heritage of this world. Relations amongst nations and people should be based on co- operation, common goodwill, and promote mutual interdependence.

8.2.2 Societal differences should be resolved in way that minimises adversarial relations and promote common understanding amongst the people of the world. In securing a peaceful and secured world, the natural resources of the world must be utilised in a way that promotes world peace.

8.3 Policy recommendations

8.3.1 Nuclear Disarmament Africa should sign the Non -Proliferation treaty aimed at decreasing production and controlled phasing out of nuclear weapons. South Africa should be actively involved in international organisations aimed at monitoring production of nuclear arms. The Government should encourage young people to be part of international programmes for young people who are aimed at encouraging world peace and security.

8.3.2 Peace keeping in Africa. Parts of Africa has been experiencing racial and ethnic turbulence over the past few years. Peace -keeping has not always been effective and foreign forces have been conceived as siding with one of the fighting factions. As a result the Foreign Peace - keeping forces have been seen as part of the conflict and did not enjoy legitimacy from local inhabitants. Peace monitoring can best be done by forces from the region where there is turbulence. The South African National Defence Force needs to avail it`s human and physical resources and play an active role monitoring peace in the continent.


The South African National Defence Force must avail human resource and materials for demining in the region, more especially in countries where it (the then SADF) has contributed in their planting. The demining process should entail skills training for young women and children to be able to detect landmines and defuse them. The government needs to ensure that demining in the Southern African region is not left to mercenaries, but becomes a social responsibility of our armed forces.

8.3.3 National Security. The new democratic Government does not face a major military threat internally or from the neighbouring countries. A different threat has emerged with the invention of a new democratic government. Crime syndicates constitute a threat to a social and economic well being of our country. The development of Crime Prevention Strategy marks a crucial step to deal with the new security threat. It becomes important that Government resources be utilized for the immediate implementation of crime prevention strategy. This must enhance popular participation for this plan to be successful.

Chapter Nine International Relations

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 The invention of a new democratic rule led the country to reestablish diplomatic and trade links with other countries. South Africa was allowed to enter various bilateral and multilateral relations with various countries South Africa became a member of the Organisation of African Unity, the United Nations and various multilateral institutions.

9.1.2 South Africa has since participated in various platforms focusing on Trade and Development, Human Rights etc. South Africa is currently the chair of United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. South Africa`s entry to international scenario has been marked by changed international circumstances than the old days of isolation. The "Bipolar" world of the cold war has given way to "Multi -polar" world.

9.1.3 New economic and regional groupings have come into being, raging from expanded European Union to NAFTA, MECUSOR, ASEAN and the "new" SADC.

9.1.4 The New World order has brought challenging political and security dimensions. Although one has seen democratisation process taking place throughout the world, security risks have not decreased dramatically. There has been a shift from previous risks of superpower nuclear confrontation to other forms of insecurity, often more regional and domestic in nature. Extremist’s organisations are a threat to peace and revived nationalist and religious movements threatens to spill over borders and trigger prolonged conflict. Ethnic conflict, organised crime, drug trafficking, cross border migration and continued arms proliferation are elements which leads to friction between neighbouring countries.

9.5 Vision

9.5.1 Our vision of international relations is in line with the national  approach on foreign relations. Our focus in developing links with young people of other countries will be based on a desire to promote Human Rights and democracy. It will be based on a desire to create a healthy nation of the world that will enjoy peace and stability.

9.5.2 In so doing we will engage with other young people on developmental strategies and relations amongst different nation states to encourage a spirit of mutual political, economic and social co-operation and uphold sovereignity of nation states. We will develop fraternal links with social movements, which fight tyranny, racism, national oppression, and want to uphold principles of democracy and human rights.

9.5.3 We will encourage dialogue and negotiations as a peaceful way of resolving conflicts.

9.6 Principles

9.6.1 Policy provisions on international relations will be guided by the following principles: -

  • A commitment to the promotion of human rights
  • A commitment to the promotion of democracy
  • A commitment to international law and justice
  • A commitment to international peace and mechanisms to resolve conflicts.
  • A commitment to peaceful coexistence and mutual co-operation of member states.

9.7 Priority areas of action

9.7.1 Solidarity Young people of South Africa will endeavor to establish fraternal links with social movements, which fight tyranny and national oppression and aspire to establish a democratic order in their country. Young people will encourage negotiations where possible between the government of the day and the social movement in the event of conflict in a country to resolve their differences in a peaceful manner, using our official government channels. Solidarity links will be extended to social movements, which have won political power and are using that political power to effect changes in their countries. This will give us an opportunity from the experiences of other countries and in turn we would be able reflect on our experiences which may be useful to them. We will strengthen solidarity links with countries whose national sovereignity is at stake resulting from imperialist interests of the superpowers of this world. We will ascertain that developing diplomatic and economic relations with any national state is our national prerogative. We will use international fora to condemn interference of these powers on domestic policies of other countries. We will at the same time use these structures to promote dialogue on human rights amongst member states of the United Nations.

9.8 Regional and Continental links

9.8.1 A prosperous South Africa also relies on the improved economic and social situation of Southern Africa. The Reconstruction and Development Programme asserts that a sustainable reconstruction of our country depends on a sustainable reconstruction of Southern Africa as a whole. The government needs to negotiate with neighbouring countries an equitable and mutually beneficiary programme of increasing co-operation and co-ordination in Southern Africa.

9.8.2 South Africa needs to be involved in the affairs of Southern Africa. Economic, political and cultural links with South Africa must be strengthened. Young people should play an active role in the cultural exchange programmes and build solidarity links with these countries. South Africa needs to be an active member of Southern African Development Community.

9.8.3 South Africa is also part and parcel of Africa. The future of South Africa also depends on Africa. South Africa must be actively involved in African affairs. This means that South Africa needs to be an active member of the Organisation of African Unity. South Africa needs to be proactive in promoting human rights and democracy in the region and continent. It must be actively involved in peacekeeping and election monitoring where necessary. Humanitarian aid must be provided in countries where needs have been expressed. South Africa must be actively involved in multilateral institutions in Africa aimed at improving trade amongst member states of the Organisation of African Unity.

9.9 Cultural Exchange

9.9.1 In an endeavor to promote dialogue and understanding amongst nation states, young people must be active in structures and cultural exchange programmes. The government needs to provide information to young people on programmes of this nature. The government must support both short and long-term programmes, in the event our country becomes a host country. Management of these programmes must where necessary involve Non Governmental Organisations who have keen interests and experience in managing youth affairs.


10.1 International trends

Internationally, but especially since the 1985 International Year of the Youth by the United Nations, there has been an increasing trend in both developed and developing countries towards promoting national youth policies and programs through specific institutional arrangements.

Close to hundred countries throughout the world have establish some central institution or the other: - as part of other ministries (e.g. in Austria, the Federal Ministry of Environment, Youth and Family Affairs; in Germany the Federal Ministries for Women and Youth, the Family and Elderly) or as sub-units of other government departments and ministries (e.g. in Australia the Youth Bureau in the Department of Employment, Education and Training; and in Canada, the Office of Youth Affairs in the Department of Employment and Immigration).

Other first world countries have central government agencies such as the National Youth Agency in the United Kingdom which deals with youth policy development on a cross sectoral basis, or have agencies for specific programmes such as the International Office of Youth Exchanges in the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Office of Youth Exchange in the US Information Agency. The United States under the Clinton administration set up a central agency to deal with its national youth service agency when this programme was introduced.

In most developing countries, a central government ministry and department of youth handle national youth policy. In Southern Africa, Namibia after independence has a Ministry of Youth and Sports and Zambia a Ministry of Sports, Youth and Child Development. In Latin America and other Asian countries, there has been a trend towards establishing councils and institutes of youth, with linkages to the Presidential or Prime Minister’s office (Argentina, Chile, Columbia and the Philippines and Thailand).

[Source: The Global Situation of Youth in the 1990’s: Trends and Prospects - United Nations Office at Vienna, Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, 1993]

11.2 Institutional mechanisms under Apartheid

The apartheid regime had no integrated youth development policy or strategy, which were aimed at all, sectors of the youth. Instead it had a policy of privilege aimed at white youth and a deliberate policy of underdevelopment with regards black youth.

This was also reflected in the government structures on youth which were in existence before 1994, which included:

Youth subdirectorates in the different segregated Education departments;

Youth Affairs Departments in most bantustan administrations;

Specific program structures in different departments, e.g. the Cadet system as part of the SADF or adolescent health sections in the different Health departments, etc.;

Youth workers employed in Black Local Authorities and

Junior Chambers in some white City Councils.

11.3 Institutional arrangements under the GNU

The Constitution makes provision for a number of Commissions such as the Commission for Gender Equality and the Human Rights Commission, but does not make any reference to the Youth Commission. It also divides powers and functions between different tiers of government (national, provincial and local) and makes provision for a system of cooperative governance.

11.4 Legislation: National and Provincial Youth Commissions

A number of laws have been passed since 1994, making provision for Commissions to coordinate youth development policies and programmes:

  • Northwest Provincial Youth Commission Act 14 of 1994
  • N Cape Promotion of Youth Affairs Act 18 of 1994;
  • Promotion of Youth Affairs Act 6 of 1995 ( E Cape);
  • The National Youth Commission Act of 6 of 1996;
  • Freestate Youth Commission Act 4 of 1996;
  • Mpumalanga Youth Commission Act 5 of 1996
  • N Province has a Youth Directorate in the Office of the Premier and is in the process of tabling a Bill which will make provision for the establishment of a Provincial Youth Commission;
  • W Cape and KZN there are moves to follow suit.
  • Gauteng Government has added the Youth Affairs function to that of the MEC for Sports, Arts and Culture and will establish a Youth Directorate within this provincial ministry/department.

11.5 Objects and Powers of the National Youth Commission

The Act sets out the following objectives of the Commission:

  • To coordinate and develop an integrated national youth policy;
  • To develop an integrated national youth development plan that utilize resources available and expertise for the development of youth and which shall be integrated with the RDP;
  • Develop principles and guidelines for the implementation of the national youth policy;
  • Coordinate, direct and monitor the implementation of such principles and guidelines as a matter of priority;
  • Implement measurers to redress the imbalances of the past relating to the various forms of disadvantage suffered by the youth generally or specifically categories of persons amongst the youth;
  • Maintain close liaison with institutions, bodies or authorities similar to the Commission in order to foster common policies and practices and in order to promote cooperation;
  • Coordinate the activities of the various provincial government institutions involved in youth matters and to link those activities to the integrated national youth policy;
  • Make recommendations relating to any other matters which may affect the youth;

11.5.2 The powers of the Commission are Executive (Sect 8.1 (a), Discretionary Sect 8.1 (b) and Advisory (Sect 8.2 (a-c). It also has a section (Sect 8.3) which provides for co-operative governance between the Commission and other organs of the state (other Commissions, departments, etc.) and provinces.

11.5.3 The National Youth Commission is based in the Office of the Executive Deputy President, and a Deputy Minister was appointed towards the end of 1996, to liase (amongst other functions) with the Youth Commission. The NYC consists of ten commissioners appointed by the President and nine provincial commissioners appointed by Premiers; the latter are located in the provinces.

11. 6. Provincial Youth Commissions: Powers and Functions


Initially located with the MEC without Portfolio, moved to the Office of the Premier in 1996.

Powers and Functions

-Advise MEC responsible or provincial government with regards a youth policy, steps necessary to address youth issues and improvement of services to youth

-Coordinate the implementation of a plan for the provision of youth services

-Investigate youth problems, issues and needs

-Make recommendations on existing or new services to young people to appropriate authorities, promote and coordinate efficient youth services

-Register youth programs

-Convene interdepartmental meetings to address youth issues

-Advise on assistance to Provincial Youth Council

-Coordinate with the local committees

-Annual report to Member responsible.


Located in the Office of the Premier

Powers and Functions

-Formulate appropriate policies on youth development, both urban and rural

-Make submissions to the Legislature through the Executive Council

-Do and commission research

-Monitor the impact of provincial governments policies and programs on youth

-Convene interdepartmental meetings on specific issues facing youth

-Make policy submissions to departments whose work impact on youth

-Initiate specific programs and coordinate implementation

-Establish local units

-Conduct civil proceedings


Located in the Office of the Premier

Powers and Functions

-Formulate appropriate policies on matters affecting youth

-Make the necessary submissions through the Premier with regards policies on youth

-Do and commission research

-Monitor legislation and the impact on youth

-Convene interdepartmental meetings

-Monitor activities of departments for impact on youth

-Coordinate and ensure implementation of specific youth programs.


Located in the Office of the Premier

Powers and Functions

-Investigate youth problems, needs, issues

-Advise the Premier with regards a youth policy, youth affairs generally and how to improve services to youth in the province

-Regulate and monitor youth programs

-Promote and coordinate efficient youth services

-Present an annual report to the Premier


The Objects, Powers and Functions of the Commission are identical to the powers of the National Commission, but at provincial level.

Further Policy Proposal

The alignment of the National and Provincial Youth Commission, with regards structure and personnel and amendments to the various Youth Commission Acts and Public Service Commissions stipulations to phase in the alignment.

11.7 Youth structures in Other Line departments

Most government departments have listed youth as one of their priorities. The role of the Commissions at National and Provincial levels are to monitor that these statement of policies are translated to programs in line with the national policy.

Policy Proposals

Assigning Members of Commissions the task of monitoring specific line function activities identified as priorities by the Commissions, and to interact with the relevant departments. (e.g. N West, E Cape)

Encourage structures in line function departments based on actual programs, e.g. Adolescent and Youth Sub/or Directorate in the Department of Health or Youth and Juvenile Justice Directorate in the Department of Justice.

Creation of interdepartmental structures, convened by the Youth Commissions to coordinate these sections.

11.8 Local Government Structures

Policy Proposals

The realisation of the objectives of a development plan are best measurable at a community level. This will mean the establishment of structures to coordinate youth development at local council levels. The objectives of these structures would be to:

  • advise Council on a comprehensive local youth development policy and the priorities;
  • make recommendations on the implementation of such a policy and coordinate such implementation;
  • sensitize Council to the needs of young people in the local community;
  • monitor the impact of Council policies and programmes on youth;

Furthermore, the creation of the above will mean provision for youth structures, through provisions in the Local Government Green and White papers and the envisaged Local Government Act.


11.9.1 Overview

Youth civil society organisations consist of two broad categories: - (a) NGO’s who provide a range of services to young people, but do not have a membership base and (b) voluntary youth associations with a membership base. These categories of organisations operate across the spectrum of youth interests ranging from youth wings of political parties, student organisations and education NGO’s, cultural groups and projects, religious youth organisations and groups, etc.

Youth NGO’s tend to be concentrated in the urban centers of Gauteng, W Cape and KZN, although attempts are made to also service close by predominantly rural provinces. However, the uneven spread of youth (and other NGO’s) in other provinces, does mean reduced capacity and expertise.

Youth NGO’s generally do quite innovative programs, with an emphasis on peer participation. However, one of the key weaknesses of this NGO sector, is its lack of capacity to reach large numbers of young people. This lack of capacity includes limited funding, organisational infrastructure, managerial skills and experience and human resources.

11.9.2 An Enabling Environment

A national youth development strategy can only be successfully implemented through a partnership of government, the NGO and private sector. One component therefore of youth policies internationally, is the encouragement and support for voluntary youth activities. This is done in many countries through grant funding to voluntary associations, often distributed through a National Youth Council (Spain, Sweden).

There is a lobby under the banner of the NGO Coalition for much more favorable conditions for NGO’s with regards taxes, and government recently set up the National Development Agency (NDA) which will fund NGO’s and government: civil society partnerships.

11.10 The South African Youth Council

Attempts have been made over the last few years to coordinate youth organisations and activities in civil society, most notably the National Youth Development Forum, an initiative that operated roughly between 1991 and 1995.

The initiatives culminated in August 1997, in the launch of the South African Youth Council (SAYC). The Founding Agreement sets out the Vision of the Council as:

  • an autonomous, non-partisan, representative body of youth in the civil society;
  • provide a platform for all youth organisations and service providers to contribute to youth policy and monitor its implementation;
  • uphold democratic values as enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic;

The Goals of the SAYC are: -

  • Lobby and advocate for youth rights and empowerment;
  • Leverage funding for youth development and projects;
  • Build tolerance, understanding of different views and a democratic culture amongst youth and in society;
  • Monitor the impact of policies and programmes on the situation of youth;
  • Facilitate capacity and support youth organisations and projects;
  • Represent all youth organisations and the youth in general;

The Founding Agreement furthermore makes provision for Provincial SAYC structures, which will have representation from provincial and locally based youth organisations.

Further Policy Proposals

The establishment of Local, Regional and District Council structures based on local government boundaries to ensure effective interaction with government at this level.

Lobby the National Youth Commission, for implementation of the enabling clause on assistance and support to voluntary youth activities, to be done in the form of assistance to the South African Youth Council and its provincial structures.


11.1 Introduction

The Government White Paper on RDP argues for a need of a budgetary process, which is transparent. Members of the civil society will now for the first time examine the budgetary process and make recommendations on spending shifts, inefficiency, waste and corruption. This gives an opportunity for young people to influence drawing up the country`s budget in a way that the government`s commitment to youth development is translated through allocation of essential resources to realize this objective.

The White Paper on RDP further calls for a shift in wasteful resource allocation, which has been based on incremental basis on a yearly basis without assessing impact of their programmes in society. The White Paper calls for the introduction of zero- based budgetary processes by which national function line departments, provinces and other institutions will motivate their programmes and on that basis determine the budgetary process. The government will further introduce the concept of multi- year budgeting, which aimed at making the process more transparent and allows greater participation of the civil society. Young people need to influence budget of national function line departments to include youth related programmes, through available organisational and institutional mechanisms.

An approach to financing youth development.

11.2 Youth Budget

Government budgets are quantification and implementation of government policies. They give indication on how the government reorders the resource of the countries with a view of realising development priority of the country. They indicate which areas will the government spend resources. The governments in countries undergoing transition build into their cost-benefit analysis when determining budgetary priorities social deficits.

It is our view that youth development needs and priorities constitute social deficit.

Our view of financing youth development is that it cannot be confined to monies used to meet the operational cost and few projects managed by the Youth Commission. The youth budget should be informed by quantification of projects managed by various government departments that impact directly or indirectly to youth development priorities. Where such projects do not exist, government needs to earmark funding which can be used for this purpose and encourage government departments to craft projects accordingly. The youth budget should then be construed as overall monies mobilised and set aside and/ or utilised by government to realise youth development. These funds should be built into overall government budgetary processes

11.3 Other Sources of Financing.

Rationalisation of Public Service

There is a need for the Public sector to be rationalized and be restructured to meet the needs of a changing South Africa. The continued maintenance of the old Apartheid Public Service only serves to unnecessary increase state`s current consumption levels, and poses a serious threat of debt trap. This will also in the long-term lead to macro-economic imbalances, and reversion to double-digit inflation rate. A rationalisation of Public Sector will lead to unlocking of resources, which the Government can use in investing in Human Resource Development, directed mainly to young people. A greater percentage of capital accrued from this savings must fund programmes aimed at alleviating youth unemployment, and training young people to increase the skills profile of the potentially economically active population.

Inter-Governmental Fiscal Relations.

The White Paper on RDP provides a new approach to the intergovernmental fiscal relations and this will be based on the following mechanisms: -

- Establishing a revenue- sharing principle

- Establishing a stable, transparent and more objective system of intergovernmental grants

- Establishing revenue resources for all levels of governments.

- Regulate borrowing by different levels of government.

The Fiscal and Financial Commission established as a statutory structure in terms of the Interim Constitution of South Africa (1994) will translate these principles into a more detailed, concrete recommendations which will result into a major structural reorganisation of intergovernmental fiscal relations. In quantifying Provincial business plans, the Fiscal and Financial Commission must examine the extent to which Provincial priorities and delivery targets impact on young people and criteria for funding of Provincial youth development programmes. The Government must develop funding criteria to Non Governmental Organisations who are active in youth development programme for funding. It must endorse their programmes for purposes of attracting funding from donors and must provide funding from Government resources.

Partnerships with Business sector.

The business sector needs to be encouraged to fund youth development programmes, which they can benefit in the short-term. Government needs to find creative ways of providing incentives to companies who participate in youth development programme.

International Donor Agencies

The Government must solicit funding from International Donor Agencies to fund programmes, which are related to youth empowerment and youth development.

References :


ANC’s Strategy and Tactics document, 1997
ANC, Reconstruction and Development Programme, 1994


CASE research for the National Youth Commission, 1997

Department of Labour

Skills Development Strategy for Economic and Employment Growth in South Africa, 1997

Department of Public Works

Public Works Towards the 21st Century , White Paper, 1997

Department of Education

A Programme for the Transformation of Higher  Education,  1997
South African Schools Act, 1996

Department of Social Welfare

Principles, Guidelines, recommnedations proposed policies and programmes for developmental Social Welfare, 1997

Department of Trade and Industry

Towards a National Strategy for the Development and Promotion of Small Business in South Africa, 1995
Financial Access for SMME’s: Towards a Comprehensive Strategy, 1997

Department of Finance