< Back

Final Communiqué of the Summit of the Frontline Heads of State and Government

11 December 1992, Harare

  1. The Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Frontline States and the Representatives of the Liberation Movements met in Harare, Republic of Zimbabwe, 11th December 1992.
  2. Participating in the Summit were:

    1. His Excellency Mr. Robert G. Mugabe, President of the Republic of Zimbabwe.
    2. His Excellency Sir Ketumile Masire, President of the Republic of Botswana.
    3. His Excellency Mr. All Hassan Mwinyi, President of the United Republic of Tanzania.
    4. His Excellency Mr. Joaqulm Chissano, President of the Republic of Mozambique.
    5. His Excellency Mr. Sam Nujoma, President of the Republic of Namibia.
    6. His Excellency Mr. Frederick J.T. Chiluba, President of the Republic of Zambia.
    7. H.E. Mr. Marcelino Moco, Prime Minister of the Republic of Angola.
    8. H.E. Dr. Salim A. Salim, Secretary General of the O.A.U.

  3. Also participating in the Summit were Mr. Nelson Mandela, President of the African National Congress (ANC) and Mr. Johnson Mlambo, First Deputy President of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).
  4. The Summit listened to a comprehensive presentation of the prevailing situation in Angola since the conclusion of the United Nations supervised elections at the end of September 1992 by the Prime Minister of Angola, Mr. M. Moco. The Summit was told of renewed fighting in many parts of Angola and rising tensionbetween the national police and UNITA military units. In this regard, the Summitappealed to all parties to renew their commitment to the Bicesse Peace Accordswhich promised a return to normal life in Angola after the holding of electionswhich were considered by the international community as free and fair.
  5. The Summit expressed great disappointment and amazement at the attitude of the UNITA leadership towards the democratic process and the purpose of free elections. An appeal was directed to them, and, in particular, to Dr. Jonas Savimbi, to respect the democratic process and the wishes of the people of Angola. In this regard, the Summit strongly condemned the acts of violence which have been committed by UNITA`s armed forces in Angola.
UNITA should accept the election results unequivocally, and take up their rightful places in the Parliament and the government of national unity and national reconciliation which came into being on December, 4 1992. President Eduardo Dos Santos was commended for appointing a broadly-based government of national unity representing all sections of Angolan society.
  1. It was suggested that the United Nations contingent (UNRVEM) be enlarged and increased. The Summit supported the UN operations in Angola and expressed the hope that UNRVEM would be given adequate resources to complete its mandate.
  2. The Summit recalled the OAU Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa`s decision to send a high level delegation to Angola at its meeting in Gaborone on 15 October, 1992. It recommended that the Ad Hoc Committee delegation shouldexpeditiously proceed to Angola to support the ongoing process of peace andnational reconciliation in that country.
  3. The Summit viewed with growing suspicion the apparently renewed military activities of the South African Defence forces in southern Angola, and condemnedthe violations of the air space of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe, by SouthAfrican aircraft.
In view of these developments, and the reported purchases of sophisticated fighter planes, the U.N. should be urged to continue enforcing and supervising the arms embargo. The member-states observed the need for regular consultation on security matters, and coordinating strategy.


  1. After receiving a report from President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique, the Summit welcomed with great satisfaction the general peace agreement signed in Rome between the Government of the Republic of Mozambique and Renamo on the 4th October 1992, to end the 16 years of war in Mozambique.
  2. The Summit noted that the general peace agreement in Mozambique opened new prospects for national reconciliation and normalisation of life for all Mozambicans. In this connection, the Heads of State appealed to the International Community to assist Mozambique in implementing the general peaceagreement, in particular, in monitoring the ceasefire and electoral process.The Summit further appealed to the International Community to fully supportMozambique in its efforts to socially reintegrate demobilised military personnelfrom both sides, as well as war displaced Mozambicans and refugees, and in the national reconstruction programmes.
  3. Taking note of the situation of the preparedness of the U.N. to take up greater responsibility in supervising the peace process in Mozambique, the Summit advised and urged member-states to support this exercise, and takeany measures that may be recommended to assist fully in the implementation of the Rome Peace Accords.


  1. The Summit considered the presentations made by the Liberation Movements on the current situation in South Africa.
Once again, the Summit appealed for an end to violence which threatens to derail the peace process and to stultify negotiations for a new,democratic and non- racial constitution. All parties were urged to go to thenegotiating table. The presentations of the Liberation Movements indicated that the negotiations were entering a new and critical stage in 1993. The Heads of State and Government pledged continued support to the Liberation Movements until a new non-racial and democratic constitution is in place.
  1. The member states reiterated the importance of uniting all the organisations representing the oppressed masses in a broadly based Patriotic Front.
The strength of the oppressed people lies in unity and good leadership. Reference was made to the statement made by the OAU Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa that all political parties in South Africa should ensure that they all work for the formation of a common front which would not permitthe minority regime to pit them against one another, thereby compromising the interest of the suffering majority. The Summit also appealed to Liberation Movements to work with all other representatives of the oppressed majority who are also working for a democratic and non-racial South Africa.
  1. It was noted with grave concern that recently, the airspace of a number of the Frontline States were violated by aircraft of the South African defence establishment. The Summit underlined its fear that the region might, once again, be under the renewed threat of military destabilisation. The Heads of State and Government noted with grave concern the threats of cross- raids made recently by the S.A. Minister of Law and Order. It strongly condemned these threats and called on the international community to prevail on South Africa to desist from such policies, and also appealed for the continued observation of the arms embargo against South Africa.
  2. The Summit was of the view that the UN Security Council Resolution 772 (1992) be fully implemented.
  3. The Summit noted the contribution of the OAU Observer Team towards the democratisation process in South Africa.


  1. The Summit also took time to deliberate on the horrendous situation in Somalia and it expressed its support for the United Nations Resolution on that suffering sister state. The Summit appealed to the factional and clanleaders to co-operate with the international community by allowing the unimpededdelivery o f relief assistance to reach all the starving people. In respondingto this appeal, the Summit noted that there was need to be sensitive to thenational pride of the Somali people which should not be trampled upon.
  2. The Summit of the Heads of State of the Frontline States expressed its appreciation and gratitude to H.E. Mr. R.G. Mugabe, the Government and people of the Republic of Zimbabwe for the warm welcome and traditional African hospitality as well as excellent facilities placed at the disposal of all delegations during their stay in Harare.